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汉字加工机制研究:中韩双语者VWFA ,汉字视觉搜索效率研究及无意识条件下的汉字加工
其他题名Study of the processing mechanism of Chinese Character: VWFA in Chinese-Korean bilinguals, the visual search efficiency of Chinese character and Processing of invisible characters
白建娥
学位类型博士
导师翁旭初
2011-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词汉字 中-韩双语者 视觉词形区 视觉搜索 眼间抑制
摘要对单个字词的识别是阅读的基础。阅读者通过对文字进行视觉或者正字法的分析,提取抽象的字形信息,进而通达心理词典,理解词义。我们通过功能磁共振成像及行为学研究方法,对汉字的加工机制进行了研究。
在研究一中,我们对汉字的视觉词形区(Visual Word Form Area, VWFA)同拼音文字——韩文的视觉词形区进行了比较。共有 16 名中——韩早期熟练双语者参加了我们的功能磁共振成像实验。所有被试都能熟练使用汉字及韩文,且对汉、韩两种语言的获得年龄均小于 5岁,并几乎是同时开始学习汉字和韩文(小于 9 岁)。通过分别把两种文字刺激与面孔刺激相比,我们发现,每一位被试的左侧梭状回皮层均能出现对汉字进行选择性反应的区域和对韩文进行选择性反应的区域,二者的位置在很大程度上存在重合,而且对两种文字反应的峰值点坐标一致。组分析的结果显示,二者对两种文字的反应强度也不存在显著性差异。进一步的多体素模式分析(Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis, MVPA)发现,该处文字词形加工区对两种文字的反应模式相似。该结果表明,在左侧梭状回皮层可能是由相同的神经元群落对不同文字系统的视觉词形进行加工。
    在研究二中,我们采用视觉搜索的范式,对从伪字、假字和笔画组合中搜索真字的时间差异进行了定量化的研究。共有 15 名汉语母语者被试参加了我们的实验。结果显示,三种不同的搜索条件下的搜索效率存在显著性差异。当从笔画组合中搜索真字时,被试的搜索效率最高;当从伪字中搜索真字时,被试的搜索效率最低;当从假字中搜索真字时,搜索效率居于以上二者之间。当从真字中搜索伪字、假字或笔画组合时,结果类似。这样的结果表明,对部件和部件位置的加工是汉字加工的重要阶段。
条件下的汉字加工。我们比较了真字、伪字、假字和笔画组合突破眼间抑制效应的时间差异,发现同笔画组合相比,真字、伪字、假字能更快地突破来自另一只眼的动态噪声的抑制从而进入知觉。真字、伪字、假字三者的反应时不存在显著性差异。我们的研究表明,在未达到意识水平之前,被试对字(真字、伪字、假字)与完全打破正字法的笔画组合的加工已经出现了差异。
其他摘要Recognition of individual word is the basis of reading.  Readers  retrieve the abstract visual word form by orthographic analysis, then access the mental lexicon and get the meaning of the word. We conducted fMRI and behavioral experiments to investigate the processing mechanism of Chinese characters.
In the first study, we investigated whether Chinese characters have the same VWFA with alphabetic writing scripts. Sixteen  proficient  early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in our fMRI experiment. All the  participants mastered Chinese and Korean languages.  They acquired the spoken language of Chinese and Korean before 5 years of age and learned to read in these two scripts before 9 years of age. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese characters and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. There was a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean.  The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters.
Multi-voxel-pattern-analysis showed that spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean were  similar.  These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.
In the second study, we adopted a visual search paradigm to compare the difference in search efficiency when subjects searched a real Chinese character among a number of pseudo characters, false characters or stroke combinations.  Fifteen Chinese native readers took part in this study. Results revealed large differences in the search efficiency among  the three different search conditions. Specifically, searching for a real character among stroke combinations was  the fastest,  searching for a real character among pseudo characters  was the slowest while searching for a real character among false characters was between the above two search conditions. When the target-distracter mapping reversed , similar results  occurred.  These results suggested that both radical and the position of radical played an important role in
Chinese character processing.
In the third study, we used the  continuous flash suppression  paradigm to investigate  the Chinese process in unconscious condition. We compared  the  time for real characters, pseudo characters, false characters and stroke combinations to overcome the interocular suppression. We found that real characters, pseudo characters and false character accessed  consciousness  more quickly than stroke combinations while  there was no difference between these three kinds of characters.
These  results suggested that the  process of characters  (real, pseudo and false characters)  was different from stroke combinations  even before accessing consciousness.  
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20063
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
白建娥. 汉字加工机制研究:中韩双语者VWFA ,汉字视觉搜索效率研究及无意识条件下的汉字加工[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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