|Alternative Title||The Influence of Menstrual Cycle on Loss Aversion of Women in Decision Making ：Evidences from Behavior and Brain Imaging|
首先，通过行为实验 1 和脑成像实验2，探讨了风险偏好与月经周期的关系。结果发现，女性在月经前风险策略的使用频率明显高于安全策略。并且，在遭受损失之后继续采用风险策略的比率明显高于月经后，这种风险偏好和脑内损失规避加工机制减弱有关。其次，脑成像实验3通过女性常见的决策行为——购物，进一步探讨月经周期内损失规避效应和抑制加工的关系。结果发现，当被试为了避免更大的损失，不得不放弃一些短视行为时，脑内抑制加工系统的活动在月经前明显增强。因此，我们推测，抑制加工减弱可能是导致女性在月经前风险偏好和决策冲动的原因之一。除此之外，我们在实验2 和 3中发现，女性决策加工过程中，不但涉及到奖赏和惩罚系统，而且还卷入了情绪加工机制。因此，我们在实验4中使用高时间分辨率的事件相关电位（Event-related potential, ERP）技术，考察月经周期内负性情绪的加工特点。结果发现，女性在月经前，无论是早期注意还是晚期的认知评价，均可受到负性情绪的影响。我们认为，女性在月经前可能会格外关注生活中的一些负性信息，产生更多负性情绪反应，从而在决策中偏好冒险。同时，也可以反映出，有机体内部的各系统之间不是相互独立的，个体当前的生理状态可以影响心理活动和行为。
总之，本研究在实验室条件下模拟决策情境，通过分析被试的真实行为反应和血氧水平依赖（Blood-oxygen- level dependent，BOLD）的信号变化，考察月经周期内决策加工特点。这不但可以让我们更好地理解身心交互作用，而且，还能够引导女性正确对待冲动消费、冒险投资、酗酒等不利于家庭和社会稳定的行为。
|Other Abstract||Menstruation is closely related to the physicalandpsychologicalhealth ofwomen, although it is one of the common physiological phenomena.Menstruation delivers women to greaterindisposition. Moreover, women’svariation in mood and cognition within menstrual cycle resulted from the dramatic shifts of endocrine cause changes of behavioral model including the decision making. How does the menstrual cycle influence women’s decision making? Finding the answer to this question gradually attracted much attention from researchers. We attempted to investigate the influence and neural mechanisms under the realistic situation of decision making by a series of behavioral and brain imaging experiments. Also, we preliminarily discussed the role of emotion in the relationship between menstrual cycle and decision making.|
First of all, the first two experiments investigated the relationship between risk preference and menstrual cycle and found that women were more risk seeking before menstruation, even after they suffered punishment. We thought that the women’s risk preference in premenstrual period was associated with attenuation of loss aversion in the brain. Second, in the third experiment we further explored the influence of menstrual cycle on loss aversion and the relationship with inhibitory mechanism. We found that when women had to give up short-sighted behaviors in order to avoid larger loss the activation of inhibitory processing system was stronger in premenstrual period than in the postmenstrual period. Thus we speculated that the attenuation in inhibitory system was one of the reasons of risk preference and impulsive decision making. In addition, we found that women’s decision making was involved in not only the reward and punishment procession but also the emotional mechanism.
Therefore, we investigated the property of negative emotion processing in fourth experiment by using event-related-potential technique with high time resolution and found that both the early attention and later cognitive evaluation were influenced by the negative emotion in premenstrual period. Therefore, we speculated that women in their premenstrual period paid special attention to the negative information in life and thus preferred risk in decision making. It also reflected that the inner systems of individual worked interdependently. Both the psychological activity and behavior of individual were influenced by current physiological state.
In conclusion, we examined the decision making, emotional processing and Bold signal changes in laboratory. This leads us more likely to understand the interaction of body and mind. It also makes the women have an appropriate attitude toward spending, risky investment, alcoholism and drug abuse which are disadvantageous to social stability, and promote the harmonious society’s development.
|Keyword||月经周期 损失规避 情绪加工 功能磁共振成像 事件相关电位|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|陈春萍. 月经周期对女性决策中损失规避的影响—来自行为和脑成像的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.|
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