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焦点结构对语篇加工的影响
其他题名The Impact of Focus Structure on Discourse Processing
陈黎静
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2012-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词焦点 新信息 对比 眼动 Erp
摘要焦点是一个句子中得到强调的、最突显的成分。心理语言学研究表明,焦点影响句子和语篇的理解。不过,关于焦点信息的即时加工过程和认知机制,前人的研究结果并不一致;而焦点结构如何与各种语言学因素一起,影响信息即时整合过程,我们知之甚少。本研究采用眼动和 ERP方法,通过四项研究八个实验,考察了焦点结构对语篇中信息加工和整合的影响。第一、二章回顾了前人的相关研究,提出要考察的问题和研究方案。
第三章(研究一)通过一个眼动实验(实验一)和一个 ERP 实验(实验二),采用标记词 “是”标记焦点,同时用语境中是否出现过来定义新信息和已知信息,考察了自然语篇阅读中名字信息的即时加工过程, 以及焦点结构对新信息和已知信息整合的影响。实验一发现:焦点信息比非焦点信息阅读得更快,表明焦点结构促进了目标信息的加工和整合。同时,新信息比已知信息阅读得更慢,表明新信息比已知信息更难加工。此外,在后目标区上的分析发现,新信息比已知信息更难整合,而焦点结构进一步加剧了这种整合困难。实验二发现:焦点信息比非焦点信息诱发一个更大的正波(200-800 ms)。这可能是反映即时整合过程的 P3b成分,表明焦点结构诱发了信息的即时整合。此外,新信息比已知信息诱发一个更大的 N400(300-500 ms),表明新信息的加工和整合比已知信息更困难。这些结果反映了焦点对信息加工和整合的重要影响。另外,新信息与焦点信息即时加工模式不同,诱发的脑电成分也不同,这对语言学上区分焦点和新信息的讨论具有重要意义。
第四章(研究二)通过两个眼动实验,分别采用合乎语境的身份名词(实验三)和真实的人物名字(实验四)为目标词,进一步考察焦点结构如何影响新信息和已知信息的世界知识整合过程。实验三基本重复了实验一的结果,不过,因为身份名词本身较容易加工,实验三中新信息与已知信息的加工差异较小。实验四用是否存在于世界知识中来重新定义新信息和已知信息, 目标区上的结果与实验一、三一致,句末区域上则发现与世界知识整合相关的效应:焦点结构诱导读者精细加工可能的整合(认识的名字),而放弃不可能的整合(不认识的名字) 。 
第五章通过一个预实验和两个眼动实验,分别在句子水平(实验五)和语篇水平(实验六)上,考察语境中有无对比对象是否影响焦点结构的使用,进而影响信息整合过程。结果发现:语境中无对比时,使用焦点结构强调目标信息是不合适的,会降低句子和语篇的可接受度;此外,在阅读理解中,会阻碍目标信息的即时整合过程,导致焦点结构促进效应消失。而语境中有对比时,使用焦点结构是合适的,会促进目标信息的整合。表明有无对比与焦点结构相互作用,共同影响了句子和语篇即时加工中的信息整合。
第六章在此基础上,通过两个眼动实验(实验七、八)进一步考察了语境中有对比对象时,其它因素是否与焦点结构联合影响信息整合过程。结果发现,连词“所以”会促进有因果关系的两个小句中目标词的加工与整合;但是如果使用焦点结构来强调目标词,连词促进效应消失。这表明,即使语境中有对比,不符合句子间的语义逻辑关系,使用焦点结构仍然会影响信息整合过程。表明焦点结构的正确使用要综合考虑对比和语篇语义逻辑关系等因素。
综上,我们发现,焦点信息的加工和整合得到促进。焦点结构对新信息和已知信息的语篇语境整合、世界知识整合过程有复杂的影响。 焦点结构与对比对象、语义逻辑等其它语言学因素相互作用, 共同影响句子和语篇即时加工中的信息整合。

其他摘要 Focus is the most emphasized and prominent  constituent  in a sentence.  Previous psycholinguistic studies  have  shown  that focus influence sentence and discourse comprehension.  However,  the on-line  processing of focused information  and the cognitive mechanisms involved in it are under discussion without a clear conclusion; while the impact of focus on the on-line processing and integration of information  is an attractive but  unresolved  issue.  This dissertation  explores  the  impact of focus structure on sentence and discourse processing by conducting eight eye-tracking/ERP experiments. In Chapter 1 and 2, we reviewed the previous psycholingistic studies and introduced our studies.  
In Chapter 3, we explored the on-line processing patterns of  focus and newness in an eye movement study (Experiment 1), and the brain responses elicited by focus and newness  in  an ERP study (Experiment 2).  Focus was marked by the Chinese focus-particle ‘‘shi’’, which is equivalent to  it-cleft  sentence  (‘‘it was… who…’’)  in English. New information was defined as the target word  that was not present in  previous contexts.  The target  word  was a proper name. We found that focused information was processed quicker than non-focused information, and elicited a larger positivity (200-800 ms) than the latter. These results suggested that  the processing and integration of focused information was facilitated. On the other hand, we found  that new information was processed slower than give information, and elicited a larger N400 (300-500 ms) than  the latter. These results suggested that the processing  and integration  of new information is difficult.  In addition,  the different processing patterns and elicited brain responses between newness and focus suggested that newness and focus are different. This provided evidence to the linguistic studies on the relationship between focus and newness.
Moreover,  the  results  in  the post-target region  of Experiment 1 showed that focus  structure  enhanced the  integration  difficulty of new information.  New information was harder to  be  integrated  into the context  than given information, which induced  longer  processing  time  for new information than given information. And this effect was enhanced by focus. We explored the influence of focus structure on new/given information integration in Chapter 4.  In Experiment 3, the target word was an identity noun. Experiment 3 replicated the effect in Experiment 1, suggesting that  the effect  is reliable.  In Experiment 4, the  target word was a pop star’s name. Newness was  defined as the unknown/famous  pop star  to  explore the  influence of focus on the integration of world knowledge. The results showed that focus triggered more  elaborate  information processing for the famous pop stars,  but giving up the integration for the unknown stars.
In Chapter 5, we explored whether  the  focus  structure can be used when the discourse context did not  include  a  contrastive set.  Results showed  that when the context  included  a  contrastive set, focused  information was processed quicker than non-focused information; while when the context did not  include  the contrastive set, focused information was processed slower than non-focused information.  These results  suggested that without the contrastive set, using focus structure is improper. And these results supported the relationship between focus and contrast.  
In Chapter 6, we explored that in the situation that the context had provided a contrastive set, whether using focus structure can be improper based on other factors. The results showed that  when  the processing of the  target  words  in the second sentence were  facilitated by the connective  “suoyi (so/therefore)” which  joined  the two sentences in causal relation,  the  facilitation effect was  eliminated by  using the focus structure to  emphasize  on  the target word.  These results  suggested that the logical relation between sentences may  influence the usage of  the  focus structure. Using the focus structure in a nonlogical way was not allowed.
In conclusion, these studies suggested that focus facilitated the processing and integration of the target word, affected the integration of new/given information, and affected  the  information  integration  together with the other linguistic factors such as contrast, logical relation, and so on.  
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20189
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈黎静. 焦点结构对语篇加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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