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中小学生欺负行为及其主要影响因素研究
陈世平
学位类型博士
导师乐国安
2000-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词欺负行为 影响因素 中小学生 欺负者 受害者
摘要本研究对中小学生的欺负行为及主要的影响因素进行了探讨,以期从理论上认识欺负行为的实质,从实践上为配合当前的素质教育、提高学生心理素质以及控制和消除学校中的欺负行为提供依据。本研究以问卷法和心理测量法为主要研究手段,并结合个案法和个别访谈,对学生、教师和家长进行研究。结果表明,中国文化背景下中小学师生所认为的欺负行为主要是指以力量不对称为特点的故意伤害行为,它包括身体暴力、社会排斥、威胁、破坏和言语等5种形式。学校中学生欺负行为的发生、发展和表现形式有其典型的特点。儿童欺负行为的发生与儿童和行为对象的个性特征、人际关系技能和家庭环境及教育的影响等有密切的关系。在个性特征上,欺负者更多地具有外向、冲动、固执、强横、和缺乏同情心等特点;被欺负者更多地具有内向、自我抑制、缺乏自信、孤独、焦虑和忧郁等特点。在人际冲突的应对策略上,欺负者有更多的外倾化情绪反应;被欺负者则更多地采用求助等策略。在家庭影响方面,有欺负行为的儿童家庭社会经济地位相对优越,但家长对他们的时间、精力上的投入相对较省;家长具有较强的体罚倾向,在教育方式上多采用放任、拒绝或专制性的教育方式;父母的教育态度和方法往往不一致,经常出现一方严厉一方袒护的局面。而被欺负者的角色地位则可能与其家庭社会经济地位或自身方面的劣势有一定关系。在教育态度和方式上,家长有过于娇宠、溺爱的倾向。容易造成被欺负者发展上的障碍和形成某些不良的个性品质。研究得出结论:不同文化背景下对欺负概念的内涵理解并不一致;中小学生中欺负行为的发生、发展有一定的规律性;儿童欺负行为主要受欺负者和被欺负者的个性特征、对人际冲突的一般应对策略、父母的基本情感态度、教育方式、对体罚的运用以及学校的环境等影响,并且通过这些因素的测量可以对预测欺负行为有一定的启发意义。研究提示:在学校开展心理健康教育;加强对学生的基本社会技能的训练;良好的家庭环境和家庭、学校的沟通,以及学校的重视等,对于预防和消除学校中的欺负行为具有重要作用。 
其他摘要The present paper studied the school bullying and the primary impact factors, for understanding the nature of bullying, and providing measures and references to the elimination and controlling of school bullying. Primarily with methods of questionnaires and psychometrics, combined with case study and interviews, the following findings were found: in Chinese culture, bullying is a behavior intentionally causing harm to the weaker or weakers. There were 5 types of bullying-physical, social exclusion, threat, breakage and verbal. In Chinese schools the occurrence of bullying had regular patterns. The factor that impact children's bullying behavior was personality traits, interpersonal techniques, family atmosphere, education and upbringing styles. In personality traits, bullies tended to be more extroversive, impulsive, obstinate, obdurate and lack of sympathy. Victims tended to be more introversive, self-restrained, lack of confidence, lonely, anxious and depressive. Both of them expressed more mental problem tendencies than normal children did. When confronted with interpersonal conflicts, they used little problem solving strategies. Bullies had more extroverted emotional responses, and victims had more social support strategies. In the light of family influence, bullies were relatively superior in family's social economic conditions. But their parents had little time and energy spent on them. They tended to be punitive, and had indulgent, reject or despotic upbringing styles. The role of victim might be related to the disadvantage of family's social economic status. Their parents had the tendency of spoiling and overindulgence. The research concluded that in different cultures the connotation of bullying was not homogenous. The occurrence of school bullying had regular patterns. Bullying behavior was primarily influenced by the personality traits of both bullies and victims, the coping strategies of interpersonal conflicts, family's social economic status, parents' basic emotional attitudes, ways of educating, punitive tendencies and school atmosphere. The occurrence of bullying behavior was the result of the combined process of past experience, behavior habits, personality traits, cognitive evaluation, certain evocative clues and the environment conditions. It reminded that quality education and mental health education in schools was essential. Strengthening basic social skill training in school, creating positive family atmosphere, having more communications between schools and families and implementing strict regulations against bullying was essential to interfere and eliminate the school bullying. 
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20190
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈世平. 中小学生欺负行为及其主要影响因素研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2000.
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