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Alternative TitleThe Relationship between Fine Motor Skill, Reasoning Ability, and General Knowledge among Four- and Five-Year Old Children: From a Developmental Perspective
Thesis Advisor施建农
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword精细动作 推理能力 常识水平 注意力 学龄前儿童 早期教育
Abstract精细动作、推理能力与常识水平是衡量幼儿入学准备程度的重要指标,其发展水平往往会影响儿童小学时期的学业表现。以往的研究在考察这些入学准备程度指标时,主要关注它们与学业成就的关系,而忽视了其本身的发展规律及其内在的联系。 本研究以北京市某幼儿园4-5.5岁幼儿为被试,考察精细动作与推理能力、常识水平的发展及其关系,同时考察注意力在两者关系中可能起到的作用。共包含两项研究。研究一采用横断研究,考察4-5.5岁幼儿精细动作与推理能力、常识水平的发展及其关系的发展,以及注意力在它们关系中的中介作用与调节作用。研究二采用纵向研究,以半年为周期追踪考察4-5岁幼儿精细动作、推理能力与常识水平的发展及其关系的发展,以及注意力在它们关系中的作用。研究结论主要有以下几点: (1)4-5.5岁期间精细动作、推理能力与常识水平都随年龄的增加而提高。但是,三者的发展速度不尽相同:幼儿精细动作与推理能力4.5岁至5岁的发展的速度要慢于4岁至4.5岁的发展速度;而常识水平在4-5岁之间则表现出稳定的提高。 (2)4-5.5岁幼儿精细动作与推理能力密切相关,并且推理能力对精细动作有显著的预测作用。两者的关系可能随着年龄的增加而减弱。而精细动作与常识水平的关系在4-5.5岁期间表现出波动的形式,相对于其他发展阶段,在4.5-5岁期间两者的关系较密切。 (3)注意力与推理能力共同影响幼儿精细动作的发展。与此同时,幼儿精细动作能力对其注意力水平也有一定程度的预测作用。 总之,对4-5.5岁的幼儿而言,其精细动作与推理能力密切相关,并且精细动作与注意力相互影响。本研究结果可能对幼儿教育、幼儿认知障碍的早期干预以及超常儿童的早期鉴别等方面有一定的指导作用。
Other AbstractFine motor skill, reasoning ability and general knowledge, which were all closely interrelated with later academic performance, have been proved to be reliable indicators of children’s school readiness. Most of previous studies on this domain usually neglected the developmental traits of preschool children’s fine motor and cognition and their interaction while focusing on the prediction of later academic performance from fine motor skills and cognitive abilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of fine motor skills, reasoning ability, and general knowledge among 4- and 5-year-old children from a developmental perspective and also to explore the role of concentration on the relationship of fine motor skills and these two cognitive abilities. There were two studies. The first study was a cross-sectional study, which explored the development of fine motor skill, reasoning ability, and general knowledge and their relationships among 4-year old, 4.5-year old, 5-year old, and 5.5-year old children. The mediating and moderating effect of concentration on their relationships were also tested. The second study was a longitudinal study, in which children were fallowed up from 4 years old to 5 years old with an interval of 6 months. The developmental trajectories of fine motor, reasoning ability, and general knowledge and their interactions were investigated. The role of concentration in their relationship was also explored from a developmental perspective. Results of the study indicate 1) fine motor skills, reasoning ability, and general knowledge improved significantly during children’s fourth to fifth year of life, and 2) the relationship between fine motor skills and reasoning ability might decrease with age, and 3) the interaction between concentration and fine motor might be bidirectional. Implications of this research include 1) fine motor skill should be taken as an important skill in the preschool education, and 2) the behavior therapies for children’s cognition should be carried out as early as possible, and 3) fine motor skill might be a reliable indicator for early identification of young gifted children.
Subject Area发展与教育心理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author AffilicationInstitute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈纬. 4-5.5岁幼儿精细动作与推理能力、常识水平的关系及注意力在其中的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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