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刺激特征和任务要求对情绪韵律加工的调制——来自电生理的证据
其他题名Modulation of stimulus feature and task demands during emotional prosody processing—— electrophysiological evidence
陈煦海
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪韵律 事件相关电位 音强 N2/p3 Theta
摘要口语是表达情绪的重要形式,分为“说什么”和“怎样说”,后者即所谓“情绪韵律”,它是依靠操控音高、音强、语速节奏和音质等声学参数的不同组合来传达词汇语义之外的情绪信息的一种韵律特征。情绪韵律的认知神经加工机制是当前研究的热点所在,目前已有许多研究探讨情绪韵律加工的时间进程和脑区定位,并提出了相关的语音情绪或情绪韵律加工模型,但这些研究都忽略情绪韵律本身特征和任务要求对其加工过程的影响。本研究基于前人的工作,主要运用事件相关电位技术,从刺激驱动和任务驱动两个角度,分三个方面(背景信息、局部参数和情绪强度)考察了情绪韵律加工过程中刺激特征和任务要求(内隐加工 vs. 外显加工)的影响。主要发现如下: 1、 大脑能够迅速(约200毫秒,N2)检测情绪韵律中的期待违反,期待违反的情绪凸显性越高,检测时间越早,还能导致警觉的提升(PEP/ P3a),在外显任务中违反期待的信息会重新和背景整合(LPC)。情绪韵律的情绪信息会加速期待违反的加工,并增加期待违反的强度。情绪韵律加工符合听觉加工的一般规律,是基于背景信息提取规则并形成期待、检测期待违反并重新与背景整合的过程。 2、 以往情绪韵律研究中常作为控制变量的局部参数“音强”,在情绪韵律加工的过程中也扮演了重要的角色,虽然它不能绝对地改变情绪韵律的情绪类别,但是会在量的水平改变情绪的强度,从而调制情绪韵律的加工。 3、 随表征情绪的声学信息丰富性从中性到高兴梯度增加,其被判定为高兴的概率梯度增加,早期电生理指标(P200)的波幅和潜伏期梯度下降,呈现梯度加工的特点,但是晚期电生理指标(P300)表现出一定的分类性。 4、 中性和高兴的语音刺激能够在200毫秒的时程内区分开来,若进入外显的高层次加工,在400毫秒左右会再次发生显著的区别,两次区分分别在颞叶和额叶出现显著的激活差异,支持语音情绪三阶段加工模型和情绪韵律加工脑网络模型。 总的来看,本研究在语句背景下考察情绪韵律加工,发现情绪韵律的期待违反会调制其加工,其过程符合语音情绪三阶段加工模型和听觉预期式加工的一般规律;然后针对以往研究对待音强的矛盾现象,考察了音强在情绪韵律期待违反中的作用,发现音强可能在量的水平改变韵律的情绪强度;最后专门探讨了情绪强度对情绪韵律加工的调制,发现从中性到情绪性随情绪强度逐渐增加,情绪韵律加工在时间进程上分别具有梯度和分类加工的模式,加工的时间和空间特点都基本符合语音情绪三阶段加工模型。 因此,本研究扩展了以往研究将情绪韵律作为一个整体考察神经加工的机制的模式,提示情绪韵律认知神经机制的研究应当在听觉加工大背景下进行,需要考虑背景信息、局部参数变化、情绪强度以及任务要求对其加工过程的影响。同时本研究主要以脑电为观察指标,从时域、频域和溯源几个角度挖掘数据,为已有的情绪韵律加工模型提供了新的证据。
其他摘要When we communicate vocally, it is often not just what we say – but how we say it – that matters. The latter, which is termed emotional prosody or vocal emotion, is the way to communicate emotion vocally that beyond verbal content by modulating acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity, rhythm, and vocal qualities. The neuro-cognitive mechanisam of vocal emotion processing has got increasing interests as there has been abundance of studies exploring the time course and brain areas responsible for vocal emotion perception and two quite sophiscated models recarding emotional prosody processing has been put forward. However, almost all the previous researches ignored the modulation of its own feature and task demands during emotional prosody processing. Therefore, the present thesis investigated the impact of stimulus features and task demands in the perception of vocal emotion from three aspects by taking the advantage of the high time resolution of ERP technique. The main findings are listed as following: 1. The brain detects the expectancy violation rapidly, indexed as an early negativity (N2) elicited by emotional prosody deviation, whose peak latency varied with deviation pattern. Moreover, a late positivity (P3) was specifically induced by the deviation and was modulated by both deviation pattern and task-relevance, reflecting a process of raising vigilance and and then integrating with the context for comprehension. The expectancy violation effects cannot be simply attributed to the change in non-emotional acoustic properties and the emotionality plays a role of speeding up the perception and enhancing vigilance.The vocal emotion processing follows the general rule of auditory perception, that is, it is based on predictive representation of temporal regularities, which are continuously generating expectations of the future behavior of sound sources. 2. Sound intensity, the frequently ignored acoustic cue, also plays an important role in vocal emotion communication, that is, athough it cannot categorically affect emotionality conveyed in emotional prosodies, it contributes to emotional significance quantitatively, implying that it should be cautious to take sound intensity as a control parameter in vocal emotion studies. 3. The possibility to be rated as happy increased gradedly as the morphing level increases, while the amplitude and peak latency of P200 decreased gradedly, suggesting the neutral and emotional vocal stimuli might be processed continuously in the early stage. However, the amplitude and latency of P300 changed categorically when the morphing level changes, implying a categorical processing of vocal emotion in explicit and high level cognitive processing. Moreover, these effects cannot be simply attributed the acoustic changes. 4. Neutral and happy vocal stimuli can be distinguished within 200 ms under implicit and explicit task demands and then differentiatd at 400ms under explicit task condition. The temporal lobe and frontal lode were significantly activated during the two stages respectively. These results suggest that the brain can differentiate neutral and emotional vocal stimuli when performing implicit and explicit task, but only explicit processing can apply the emotional significance to higher cognitive processing in later time point. Therefore, the current study suggested that it should take the genereal role of auditory processing into consideration in the study of vocal emotion perception. Moreover, the context, single acoustic cue and emotion intensity have salient impact on such process. In addition, taking the advantage high time resolution of EEG technique, the current data provide more evidence for the hierarchy model of emotional prosody. 
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20195
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈煦海. 刺激特征和任务要求对情绪韵律加工的调制——来自电生理的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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