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创伤后应激反应症状的民族差异——以汶川地震后对羌汉幸存者的访谈分析为例
其他题名Post-traumatic stress symptoms of 512 Wenchuan Earthquake Survivors differed in Qiang and Han ethnics
陈正根
学位类型硕士
导师张雨青
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词创伤后应激反应症状 民族差异 资源保存理论 应对方式 中国文化
摘要本文通过定性访谈的方式,以汶川地震中的羌汉幸存者为研究对象,收集他们在经历地震后的创伤后应激反应症状表现,首先对羌族和汉族幸存者出现的创伤后应激反应症状表现进行比较,找到两个民族间的PTSD症状反应的差异。继而,将羌族和汉族幸存者作为一个整体,了解中国人在经历自然灾难后的创伤应激反应的症状特点,并与西方文化背景下的PTSD诊断症状标准相比较,为今后开发本土化的PTSD诊断工具的提供理论依据。 研究一,通过对经历汶川地震的23名羌族幸存者与23名汉族幸存者的有关创伤后应激反应症状的访谈内容分析,结果发现:尽管两个民族都会提及一些闯入、回避和麻木及高警觉的症状,然而具体表现却有很大差异。总体而言,羌族幸存者的应激反应症状更倾向于直接的“外显化”;而汉族幸存者的创伤后应激反应则是相对的“内敛化”。这种差异也可能在一定程度上决定了,早期羌族幸存者的PTSD症状可能相对更严重,而汉族幸存者的PTSD症状可能会进展得迟缓些,同时,还发现可以从创伤源的主观体验、归因和应对方式及资源保存理论的角度对羌族幸存者的PTSD症状相对更严重做出很好的解释。 研究二,将23名羌族幸存者与23名汉族幸存者作为一个中国文化背景下的灾后群体,来了解中国文化背景下的灾难幸存者的创伤后应激反应症状的特点,通过与西方的PTSD诊断标准症状比较发现:17条诊断标准症状都有被或多或少的提及到,仅有三条症状仅被2或3个人提到。重要的是,中国幸存者还提及到一些其他的心理和生理症状,这些被大部分中国幸存者所提到的西方PTSD诊断标准之外的症状,可能是东方文化或中国文化所独特的。意料之外的是,有几个幸存者还提及到经历创伤后的一些积极的心理变化,这种创伤后成长现象的出现可能也是未来需要着重研究的方面。 
其他摘要A sample of 46 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake were interviewed in their own homes six months after the earthquake. The sample was composed of equal numbers of Qiang ethnic and Han ethnic. Responses to disaster were described by them through qualitative interviews. Firstly, survivors’ responses to disaster between two ethnics were analyzed in order to identify their differences. Then the reasons for much severer PTSD symptoms suffered by Qiang ethnic were examined from many factors, such as differential exposure, social support, attributing and coping style. Finally, the posttraumatic stress symptoms provided by the survivors (taking all the 46 interviewees as a whole) were analyzed by assessing the extent to which they can correspond to the 17 criterion symptoms of PTSD. This will help develop an indigenous self-report scale as an instrument assessing PTSD among Chinese after natural disasters. Study one is a study that compare posttraumatic stress symptoms of Qiang ethnic with that of Han ethnic. The results indicated that both Qiang and Han ethnics were mentioned many symptoms like intrusion, numbing/avoidance and hyperarsoual symptoms. However, their response style is different in those three symptom categories. The Qiang ethnic tend to response in a directly and explicitly way, such as Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections and active avoidance; While the Han ethnic prefer to hide the emotion and behavior. This different response style may be one of the reasons leading to much severer PTSD symptoms suffered by Qiang ethnic as well as other factors, such as differential exposure, social support, attributing and coping style. Study two is aimed to understand the characteristic of posttraumatic stress symptoms of Chinese people and assess the extent to which these symptoms corresponding to the 17 criterion symptoms of PTSD. The results showed that all of 17 criterion symptoms were mentioned with little or more by study participants with three symptoms mentioned by just 2 or 3 participants. What’s more, many expressions of other psychological and physiological symptoms that could not be classified specifically as one of the 17 criterion symptoms were described by many participants. This Chinese characteristic different from that of Western culture is important for assessing and screening potential victims in future. Unexpectedly, there are some participants mentioned some positive changes arising from their struggle with the aftermath of earthquake. This phenomenon is interesting and need paying attention to in future study. 
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20198
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈正根. 创伤后应激反应症状的民族差异——以汶川地震后对羌汉幸存者的访谈分析为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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