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老年记忆更新能力的可塑性:训练获益、迁移和保持
其他题名Plasticity of Memory Updating in Older Adults:Training Gain, Transfer, and Maintenance
杜新
学位类型学士
导师陈天勇
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词记忆更新 认知训练 认知可塑性 近迁移效应 远迁移效应
摘要记忆更新(Memory Updating)是一种重要的执行功能,实证研究表明其与工作记忆、液态智力的相关密切,研究进一步显示记忆更新的随龄衰退是引起人们的日常认知功能衰退的主要原因,这与执行衰退假说一致。以此为理论基础,本研究关注于记忆更新这一核心认知能力的可塑性及迁移性,对60岁以上健康老年人进行为期一个月、12个阶段 (每周三次,每次45分至1小时) 的训练后,对其更新能力的训练效应和近远迁移效应进行测量,并在训练结束后15周进行追踪。本研究选取数字更新和棋子游戏作为训练任务,并采用适应性训练方式设置了不同的任务难度等级,选取数字更新三位和数字更新四位两个任务作为标准任务测定每个阶段的训练获益;在近迁移任务的选择上,选取与训练任务结构类似的颜色更新、色点更新任务以及与训练任务同种能力不同任务结构的类词刷新、2-back任务;在远迁移任务的选择上,选取与更新能力密切相关的工作记忆与液态智力的相关任务,另外依照一般智力的维度,选取加工速度、情节记忆作为远迁移的认知能力指标。 本研究的主要结论如下: 1 相比控制组,训练组在更新任务上的成绩有显著提高,表明更新能力具有可塑性; 2 在与训练任务类似的颜色更新和色点更新上有近迁移效应,但在类词刷新和2-back未出现这一效应,表明更新任务的训练的近迁移效应受任务相似性的影响; 3 在工作记忆、图形推理及视空间能力、加工速度与情节记忆四类能力指标上均未发现远迁移效应,表明更新训练未能改善老年人的工作记忆、液态智力及一般智力表现; 4 在更新任务和近迁移任务 (颜色更新) 上的训练获益能够保持15周。 
其他摘要As one of the important executive functions, memory updating has close correlation with working memory and fluid intelligence. Further studies indicate the age-related decline of memory updating is the main cause of cognitive aging, which is in consistent with executive decline hypothesis. This study was designed to explore the plasticity and transferability of working memory updating. A sample of healthy older adults received 12 training sessions over one month, each session lasted for 45 min to 1 hour (three sessions per week), and a battery of cognitive tests were administrated at pretest, posttest (immediately after completion of training), and follow-up test (15 weeks after completion of training) to assess training gains, potential transfer effects and maintenance effects. Digit updating paradigm and self-designed chess game were adopted for adaptive training, consisting of various difficulty degrees; Digit updating task (3-digits-recalled and 4- digits recalled) were used to assess the training gains during each session; near transfer tasks included color updating, color dots updating which were similar to trained tasks, and keep track, 2-back task which were dissimilar to trained tasks; far transfer tasks included working memory and fluid intelligence which have close correlation with updating, and another two measured cognitive domains: processing speed and episodic memory, according to dimensions of general intelligence. The results indicated that: 1) trained elderly showed substantial improvement on the criterion tasks immediately after training relative to controls, indicating plasticity of memory updating exists. 2) training gains could transfer to color updating and color dots updating task but not to keep track and 2-back task, indicating near transfer effects were modulated by task similarity. 3) the gains of updating training cannot be generalized to general intelligence performance of older adults, there was no far transfer to working memory, fluid intelligence, processing speed and episodic memory. 4) training effect and near transfer effect on color updating can be maintained over 15 weeks. 
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20205
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杜新. 老年记忆更新能力的可塑性:训练获益、迁移和保持[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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