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场景知觉和记忆中的一致性效应
其他题名Consistency Effect in Scene Perception and Memory
龚明亮
学位类型硕士
导师褟宇明
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词场景一致性 情境 记忆 注意 眼动
摘要现实世界中的物体总是处于一定的情境之中,而物体所处的不同情境也会影响对该物体的认知。人们对与情境语义一致的前景物体的命名、分类、搜索等都快于与情境不一致的物体,且准确率更高,这一现象称为“场景一致性效应(scene consistency effect)”。但关于不一致的场景是否更加吸引注意力还存在争议,且有关场景一致性对场景记忆的影响我们知之甚少。实验1在控制场景图片的物理特征的基础上,通过记录被试自由浏览场景图片时的眼动,发现被试能更早地注视到不一致的物体,表明不一致场景更加吸引注意。实验2考察场景的短时记忆保持期间的眼动模式,发现与其眼动模式与实验1相似,表明不一致场景相比于一致场景在知觉和短时记忆保持期间都存在优势。实验3探究了一致性的变化对短时记忆绩效的影响,发现相比于任务过程中场景一致性保持不变的变化,一致性发生改变的这类变化可以更准确的被觉察到,且这一效应不受刺激呈现时间和颜色的影响。实验4则采用学习—再认范式探究一致性对长时记忆的影响,发现不一致场景的长时记忆成绩好于一致场景。本研究说明了一致性对场景知觉和记忆的影响,为更加全面的了解场景认知,尤其是背景和前景物体的交互作用对场景知觉和记忆的影响作出了贡献。
其他摘要Objects in real world are always located in certain context, which exert great influence on object perception. It is found that objects are named, categorized and searched more quickly and more accurately when foreground object and its background are semantically consistent than when they are semantically inconsistent. This phenomenon is called scene consistency effect. However, it is still controversial whether inconsistent scene is more attentionally attractive than consistent scene. Also, we know little about the effect of consistency on scene memory. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to freely view scene pictures. Meanwhile, eye movements were recorded. Result showed that inconsistent object was fixated earlier and for a longer fixation time, demonstrating that they are more attractive. In Experiment 2 participants demonstrated a similar eye movement pattern as in Experiment 1 when maintaining consistent or inconsistent scenes in short-term memory. In Experiment 3 a masked change detection paradigm was adopted to explore the effect of consistency on scene short-term memory. It was found that changes could be more accurately detected when scene consistency changes than when consistency remained during the task. This effect was robust since the same results were obtained when scene pictures were presented for a short period of time or in gray scale. Experiment 4 suggested that inconsistent scenes were more readily recognized in a long-term memory task. The present study explored the effect of consistency on both scene perception and memory, which contributes to revealing the mechanisms of scene processing. 
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20269
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
龚明亮. 场景知觉和记忆中的一致性效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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