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Alternative TitleThe role of temporal cognition in time stress
Thesis Advisor高文斌
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword主观时间认知 应激 时间界限 焦虑
Other Abstract 

时间是机体适应环境的一个重要维度。在时间充足的情况下,人们可以搜寻一切尽可能充分或者优化的策略来执行任务或解决问题,而当时间比实际需要或者知觉的时间少时,就可能引发紧张、焦虑等情绪,也会影响信息加工、决策、以及任务完成的质量。本研究为任务设立5种时间界限,考察个体时间应激下的行为和心理反应,并探讨主观时间认知在其中的作用。也对不同性别或不同焦虑水平个体的时间应激反应模式做出描述。 研究结果如下: 1. 确立时间界限的研究范式,有效诱发个体的时间应激反应。 2. 时间界限的存在使个体反应速度提高,但也导致正确率下降。在主观上表现为压力感、紧张感、疲劳感、心理努力程度、生理努力程度的升高以及再次缩短时间界限意愿的下降。但在注意力集中情况和兴奋感上,时间界限并没有诱发显著的时间应激效应。 3. 时间认知的清晰性使压力感和疲劳感增加,行为绩效下降。 4. 任务时间界限不变的情况下,单纯的主观时间认知改变也会使个体反应速度提高,且压力感、紧张感、疲劳感增加,但正确率无变化。 5. 时间应激存在性别差异,女性反应时提高比例更高,正确率更高。但男性在注意力、兴奋感、心理和生理努力提高程度上均高于女性。时间认知的精确性降低女性的行为绩效,提高男性的压力感。单纯主观时间认知下,男性兴奋感、心理努力和生理努力程度高于女性。 6. 高状态焦虑者在时间应激下行为耐受性较差,注意力集中程度和心理努力程度也较低。高特质焦虑者在时间应激下注意力集中程度、兴奋感、心理努力和生理努力程度低。主观时间认知对高状态焦虑者的影响更大。 ; Time is a significant dimension to adapt environment in life. People do tasks using optimal strategies under circumstances when plenty of time is available, but we may have trouble in information processing, decision making, or fulfilling a task in high quality when in time pressure. The feelings of stressed or tensed may appear at the same time. The current study separately sets time limits of different levels for 5 tasks to investigate people’s reaction under time stress and to explore the role of subjective temporal cognition. The role of gender and level of anxiety is also discussed. Results: 1. The research paradigm successfully initiates time stress reactions. 2. Reaction time is shortened and the accuracy rate declines under time limits. The feelings of stress, tense, fatigue and the degree of efforts go up while the willing to shorten the time limits goes down. And time limits have no significant effect in concentration and stimulation. 3. Clear cognition of the time limits increases the feelings of stress and tense but decrease performance. 4. Pure temporal cognition accelerates reaction time, but has no significant effect on accuracy rate. The feelings of tress, tense and fatigue increase. 5. Gender difference exists. Female subjects’ RT enhances faster and their accuracy rates are higher than males. Males tend to grade high in concentration, stimulation, psychological and physical effort. Clear cognition of the time limits downgrades the performance of female, but upgrades the feeling of stress of male. Under pure temporal cognition, male are highly stimulated and their psychological effort and physical effort are higher than female. 6. High state anxiety individuals have poor performance under high time stress and their level of concentration and psychological effort are low. High trait anxiety ones have low level of concentration, feeling of stimulation, psychological and physical effort. Temporal cognition has greater impact on high state anxiety individuals. 
Subject Area医学心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李晓苗. 主观时间认知对心理应激反应的调节作用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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