Occupational stress still remained a serious problem in modern industry, yet previous studies hadn’t show enough concern about gold mining industry in modern China. Challenge-Hindrance Stressors might have different influences on employees’ well being and performance. Core Self Evaluation was chosen as a moderator to represent individual characteristic. Mental well being as well as physical well being was both measured as employee’s well-being. Organizational citizenship behavior, counter productive work behavior, safety performance behavior were selected as performance indicators by literature review and the result of employees’ interview. A field study was conducted in a gold mining company, with 271 employees successfully completed the questionnaire. Results showed that challenge and hindrance stressors had negative effects on employees’ well-being, with core self evaluation served as a moderator. Challenge stressors positively affected organizational citizenship behavior, while hindrance stressors had a negative effect on it, core self evaluation moderated the relationship between challenge stressors and organizational citizenship behavior. Both stressors could promote employees’ counterproductive work behaviors, yet core self evaluation only moderated the relationship between challenge stressors and counterproductive behavior. Both stressors negatively affected safety performance behavior—safety compliance and safety participation, with core self evaluation served as a moderator. Challenge stressors and hindrance stressors could positively predict the employees’ monthly actual fine safety violations, and core self evaluation had a significant effect on the reduction of safety violation. Challenge stressors in gold mining industry employees not only composed negative effects on safety performance behaviors, but also could promote more counterproductive work behavior; these findings were somehow inconsistent with literature hypothesis. Still one could manage to promote employee’s well being and performance by enhancing core self evaluation.