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综合认知训练 vs. 记忆策略训练:对老年人记忆功能影响的比较研究
其他题名Multi-cognitive Training versus Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults: Effects on Memory
李冰
学位类型硕士
导师李娟
2011-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词综合认知训练 记忆策略训练 记忆 老化 执行功能 老化
摘要老化会引起老年人记忆、加工速度、执行功能等认知能力下降,认知训练是维持并改善老年人认知功能的有效方法之一。本研究目的在于比较相同训练时间内记忆策略训练结合执行功能训练的综合认知训练范式与单纯记忆策略训练范式对老年人记忆等认知功能的影响。 本研究招募40名60—76岁的社区健康老人,记忆策略训练组(简称记忆组)和综合认知训练组(简称综合组)各20人。记忆组的被试只接受记忆策略训练,包括位置法和面孔-人名记忆术的训练;综合组被试接受执行功能训练(刷新和切换能力)以及与记忆组内容相同的记忆策略训练。本研究采用团体训练法,被试6—8人为一个小组。两组训练时间完全一致,共16次,每周训练3次,每次1小时。在接受训练前(前测验),训练8次后(中测验),全部训练结束后(后测验),以及训练后4个月(追踪测验)测量被试的各项认知功能。 研究结果表明:1)两训练组对记忆功能(训练及非训练的记忆任务)的训练效果无显著的组间差异;2)两训练组均促进被试在非训练记忆任务中的记忆策略使用并且该训练效果上无显著组间差异3)综合组在促进执行功能和工作记忆能力上优于记忆组;4)两训练组对加工速度和语言的训练效果无显著组间差异;5)训练结束四个月后,综合组在训练的记忆任务(wordlist task)以及工作记忆任务上的成绩、记忆组在语言任务上的成绩失去与基线水平相比的显著差异,其他所有训练效果均在追踪测验中保持。 总的来说,相同训练时间内综合认知训练范式的优势在于该范式可作用于更广泛的认知领域,而对记忆功能的训练效果单纯记忆策略训练略优于综合认知训练。
其他摘要Aging is associated with brain changes and cognitive decline (i.e. memory, cognitive speed and executive functions) that limit older adults’ functional capability. Cognitive training is frequently administered to slow the progressive cognitive decline and enhance cognitive performance in old age. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of multi-cognitive training combining memory strategy training with executive function training versus full-time memory strategy training on memory performance (and other cognitive functions) in healthy older adults with the same training time consumption. A total of 40 well-functioning adults aged 60 years and older (mean age=68.3, SD=4.37, range=60 to 76) participated in the research. Participants were divided into Memory Strategy Training Group (M group; N=20) or Multi-cognitive Training Group (EF & M group; N=20).The training program was administered by groups of 6-8 participants. The intervention format was identical for both training groups. There were three training sessions per week, lasting approximately 60 min each. Sixteen sessions were held in total. Participants in M Group received 16-session memory strategy training only. Participants were instructed to use “method of loci” and “face-name technique”. In EF & M group, the former 8 sessions included EF training in terms of computer-based updating and switching training performed equally in time. During the last 8 sessions EF & M group received memory strategy training as the one in the former 8-session training in M group. All participants were individually tested at pretest, mid-test (immediately after 8 sessions), Posttest 1 (immediately after completing the training program) and Posttest 2 (4 months after completion of training). Our results revealed that: a) there were no reliable group differences of training gains on memory performance; b) the two groups improved mnemonic application equally in nontrained memory task; c) EF & M group led to better enhancement in executive functions and working memory comparing to M group; d) there were no reliable group differences of performance gains on cognitive speed and language; e) EF & M group lost significant performance improvements in one of the two strategy practiced tasks (wordlist task) and working memory task, and M group lost the improvement in language task. The other performance improvements in both groups were maintained in Posttest 2. In sum, when consuming the same amount of training time the strength of multi-cognitive training is resulting in training gains in a wider variety of cognitive domains than full-time memory strategy training. However, if focusing on improving memory skills, full-time memory strategy training would be more appropriate.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20302
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李冰. 综合认知训练 vs. 记忆策略训练:对老年人记忆功能影响的比较研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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