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阈下知觉对决策的影响
Alternative TitleThe affection of subliminal perception on Decision-making
刘娟
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor张侃
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword阈下知觉 无意识 决策 非合作性博弈 认知
Abstract意识问题正在成为当前生命科学中具有挑战性的课题之一,相应的,阈下知觉也成为心理学领域的重要研究问题。阈下知觉是一种潜在的无意识心理过程,人们并不能有意识地知觉到刺激的存在,但它却影响到随后的心理过程。已经取得的基本共识是,阈下刺激可以得到低水平的加工,争论的焦点在于是否存在更高水平(如推理、判断和决策等)的无意识加工?在西方国家,阈下技术正被大量应用于广告宣传、政治竞选等领域,以求在“不知不觉”中改变受众的态度和行为。本论文将围绕阈下知觉对决策的影响展开系统研究。 鉴于认知和情绪会在很大程度上影响决策过程,为此研究一和研究二首先考察阈下知觉对视觉注意以及情绪的影响。研究三则从接近日常生活的角度出发,构建人们熟悉的决策场景,探讨特定场景中阈下知觉对决策结果的影响。通过五个实验,本研究主要得到了以下结论: (1)阈下不可见线索得到了较高水平的加工,加工机制与阈上线索不同。行为学结果表明,小范围提示条件下,被试接受35ms(接近阈限水平)的线索提示时视觉搜索的正确率最高。事件相关电位P3波幅的结果提示,被试接受35ms的提示时投入的心理资源量增加,认知负荷增大。 (2)阈下强度的音乐导致被试皮肤电的显著变化,而情绪自评未见显著差异,说明在阈下音乐的作用下存在“未被主观觉知”的情绪唤起。无论是快乐情感的音乐《春节序曲》还是悲伤情感的音乐《二泉映月》都存在相同的影响效应。 (3)阈下知觉能够影响决策(包括非合作性博弈、模糊决策和风险决策),影响结果受到刺激通道、刺激呈现方式、决策任务类型和难度等多种因素的制约。 本研究丰富了决策影响因素相关领域的理论成果,为进一步研究决策的影响机制提供了实验支持,同时为发展更加隐蔽、更加安全的心理和行为干预技术提供理论依据和技术方案。
Other AbstractIn recent years, awareness has become one of the most challenging research fields in the life sciences. Accordingly, subliminal perception is an important psychological issue recently. Subliminal perception is a kind of unconscious mental process which can achieve a low level of cognitive processing. The focus of the debate is whether there is a higher level of unconscious processing? In western countries, subliminal information is used to change the audience attitude and behavior. This paper will explore the affection of subliminal perception on decision making. The main conclusions are presented below. (1) The unseen visual cues are processed, and the cognitive mechanisms are different from those of suprarliminal cues. The ERP experimental results show that subjects accepting cues of threshold level (35ms) have highest cognition load and such cues can improve human’s accuracy of visual search. So, subliminal perception is processed at a high cognition level. (2) Unheard music (both happy music and sad music) can cause significant change to human’s skin resistance, but people themselves can’t consciously feel their change of mood. (3) Subliminal perception (both emotional faces and semantic information) can affect human’s decision making. The affection is based on stimuli channel, present way , decision task types and task difficulty. This research enriches the theoretical achievements on decision making and provides enough experimental support for the further study of the mechanism of decision making. In addition, it is very helpful to develop new behavior intervention technology which is more safety and more hidden.
Subject Area应用心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20303
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘娟. 阈下知觉对决策的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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