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多物体追踪中的物体独特性效应与机制
Alternative TitleEffect of Object Uniqueness on Multiple Object Tracking and Its Mechanism
刘天纬
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor傅小兰 ; 陈文锋
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword多物体追踪 独特物体 注意 工作记忆容量 语音编码
Abstract多物体追踪是研究物体与注意关系的常用范式。近年来,追踪独特物体的研究表明,多物体追踪中的特征信息可以得到加工,且物体的独特性在不同实验条件下可以导致追踪绩效提高或降低。本研究提出,物体的独特性对追踪既有利益,又有代价,并系统考察了多物体追踪中物体独特性效应及其机制。研究一通过操纵物体特征的工作记忆容量,比较不同工作记忆容量的独特物体和相同物体的追踪绩效,结果发现工作记忆容量大的独特物体帮助追踪,容量小的独特物体阻碍追踪;对目标进行组块可以有效地增大其工作记忆容量,使得原本阻碍追踪的物体也可以帮助追踪。研究一的结果表明特征信息在工作记忆当中编码和存储所消耗的资源多少决定了独特性效应的方向和大小。研究二通过操纵目标的可命名性,发现只有可命名的目标才能产生独特性效应,外观不同但不可命名的目标不会产生独特性效应。研究二的结果表明追踪过程中物体特征是以语音编码的形式存储在工作记忆系统中。本研究用统一的理论解释了前人研究中物体独特性对追踪绩效影响的看似不一致的结果。
Other AbstractMultiple-object tracking (MOT) is a widely used paradigm in investigating the relationship between object and attention. Recent research on tracking of unique objects has shown that target features can be processed during tracking, and object uniqueness can produce varying effects on tracking, from enhanced to impaired tracking performance. In this study, we proposed that object uniqueness brings both benefits and costs to tracking task, and investigated the effect of uniqueness on MOT and its underlying mechanism. Study 1 manipulated the working memory (WM) capacity of tracking stimuli, and compared tracking performance for unique and identical objects. We found that unique objects with large WM capacity facilitate tracking, whereas unique objects with small WM capacity impair tracking. We suggested that the effect of uniqueness is set by the amount of attentional resources demanded for encoding and storing object identities in WM. In study 2, the nameability of targets was manipulated. Effect of uniqueness was only observed for nameable targets but not for unnamable targets with surface features. We suggested that during tracking object identities are stored in verbal code in WM system. The current study provided an explanation for seemingly contradictory findings on effect of uniqueness on MOT with a unified theory.
Subject Area基础心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20304
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘天纬. 多物体追踪中的物体独特性效应与机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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