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个体及环境因素对小学生学业成就的预测
其他题名predicting elementary school children's achivement from individual and environmental factors
陆丽萍
学位类型博士
导师施建农
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词学业成就 影响因素 结构方程模型(sem) 儿童发展
摘要儿童的学业成就向来是发展与教育心理学领域一个基本问题,也是全社会关注的热点。找出学业成就的预测因子,对于儿童学业的有效干预以及教育方针政策的制定有着重要意义。目前探讨学业成就的影响因素的研究很多,但它们主要存在三个问题:1)现有研究割裂了个体与环境因素对学业成就的影响,多单独考虑个体或环境因素,这样往往会忽视或夸大某些因素的作用,从而得出不恰当的结论;2)传统研究主要采用回归分析的分析手段,无法排除测量误差和因素间的相互作用。3) 目前的研究并未从发展的角度探讨儿童学业成就影响因素模型的发展变化规律,因此无法说明个体及环境因素对低中高三个年级段儿童的学业成就影响的发展变化规律。本研究支持个体与环境相互作用相互适应的观点,并且认为个体与环境因素对学业成就的作用会随着时间的改变,即儿童的成长阶段而发生相应的变化。 基于现有研究问题和本研究的理论框架,我们选取小学低中高年级学生为研究对象,结合个体与环境因素(家庭因素和学校因素),采用SPSS和结构方程模型分析技术,试图更为客观更为准确地分析和探讨个体与环境因素对学业成就的预测作用以及这些因素对儿童学业成就影响随时间发展的变化规律。 结果发现:1)个体因素,尤其是智力,是影响儿童学业成就的最主要因素,环境因素是影响学业成就的次要因素;2)单独考虑个体或环境因素时,学业动机能显著预测小学中年级儿童学业成就,父母参与能显著影响小学低年级儿童学业成就,而同时考虑个体与环境因素时,这些因素均不显著,环境因素中仅有父母受教育程度对小学中年级儿童学业成就影响显著;3)儿童小学低年级时,性别与语文学业动机显著相关。而从儿童小学中年级起,性别成为预测儿童语文学业成就的稳定因子,而它对数学学业成就则无显著预测力。 本研究结果表明:1)个体因素是决定儿童学业成就的主要因素,父母将更多的精力投入到改善子女的智力和提高自身的文化程度上可能是帮助儿童提高他们的学习成绩的更为有效的方法;2)割裂个体与环境因素对儿童学业成就的共同影响,忽视个体因素与环境因素之间的相互作用,所得出的结论是不够全面和准确的;3)儿童从小学低年级开始就逐渐内化了社会性别分工,并且随着儿童年龄和年级的增长,这种趋势逐渐加强。然而,这种趋势存在学科上的不一致。
其他摘要How to improve children’s achievement is not only a basic question in the field of Developmental and Educational Psychology, but also the hot spots of the whole society. It is important to find the factors to predict school achievement in order to effectively intervene in children’s study and establish educational guideline. Many researches have been trying to find the predicting factors of school achievement. However, there are three limits in these studies: 1) they didn’t take individual and environmental factors as a whole to predict school achievement. Instead, these studies normally consider individual or environmental predicting factors separately. In that case, they may get the exaggerated results; 2) the traditional researches mainly use regression analysis as their technique methods, which can not exclude measuring errors and the reciprocity among the predicting factors; 3) present study didn’t discuss the development of the model of predicting school achievement from individual and environmental factors, so it is hard to answer how the model changes across children from low grade to high one. This research insists on the point that individual and environment are reciprocal and adaptive, and considers that the relationship between individual and environmental factors changes along with the time. On the base of present studying problems and our theoretical frame, we chose primary school children from low grade to high grade as our subjects. With the application of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling analysis, we combined individual and environmental factors (family factors and school factors), in order to analyze and discuss the effect of individual and environmental factors to school achievement and how the relationship of these factors change as time goes by. The main findings are: 1) individual factors, especially intelligence, are main factors to predict school achievement, while environmental factors are minor factors; 2) when consider individual or environmental factors separately, achievement motivation can predict middle grade children’s school achievement and parent involvement can predict low grade children’s school achievement. However, when consider both individual and environment factors, these factors are not significant any more. Among environment factors, only parent education can predict middle grade children’s school achievement; 3) in the group of low grade children, gender is significantly related to Chinese achievement. From middle grade, gender becomes a steady factor to predict children’s Chinese achievement. However, gender has no effect on Math achievement. In conclusion, results in the current study suggest: 1) as individual factors are the main factors to predict school achievement, it seems more effective for parents to improve their children’s intelligence and their own education in order to raise their children’s school achievement; 2) it is not comprehensive and accurate to isolate the combine effect of individual and environment factors to school achievement; 3) from low grade, children begin to internalize social viewpoint of gender, and this trend becomes strengthen and strengthen. However, this trend shows difference between subjects.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20313
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陆丽萍. 个体及环境因素对小学生学业成就的预测[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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