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不同年龄中怀旧与自尊的关系:心境、认同连续性的调节作用
其他题名Nostalgia and Self-esteem between Different Ages:mood and identity continuity moderates the effect of nostalgia on self-esteem
吕少博
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词怀旧 外显自尊 内隐自尊 心境 认同连续性
摘要本研究通过五个研究对怀旧的性质、怀旧与自尊的关系以及年龄、心境与认同连续性在其中的调节作用进行了探讨。 预研究目的是为了确认怀旧所涉及到的过去经验的性质。通过让147名大学生回忆让其怀旧的事件,发现,怀旧既涉及到过去的积极事件,也涉及到过去的消极事件。 研究一的目的是为了确认怀旧可以分为积极怀旧与消极怀旧。该研究以89名大学生为被试。结果发现,积极怀旧组与消极怀旧组在状态怀旧上均高于控制组,两组之间无显著差异;积极怀旧组比控制组引发了更多的积极情绪;消极怀旧组比控制组引发了更多的消极情绪。 研究二的目的是为了探讨心境在怀旧与自尊之间的关系中的调节作用。该研究以124名大学生为被试。结果发现,将涉及到消极事件的怀旧组被试去除之后,怀旧组比控制组具有更高的外显整体自尊,而心境在怀旧与自尊之间关系中无调节作用。 研究三的目的是为了探讨积极怀旧与消极怀旧与外显整体自尊、外显行为自尊、外显社会自尊、外显外表自尊之间的关系,以及年龄、心境在其中的调节作用。该研究以大学生和中老年社区居民为被试。结果发现,在大学生样本中,积极怀旧具有提升外显整体自尊的作用;消极怀旧具有降低外显整体自尊、以及外显的行为自尊的作用;在中老年群体中,在消极心境中,怀旧具有提升状态性社会自尊的作用。 研究四的目的是为了探讨认同连续性在怀旧与自尊之间的调节作用。结果发现,认同连续性在积极怀旧与外显整体自尊之间的关系中具有调节作用,即对于高认同连续性的个体来说,积极怀旧可以提升个体的整体自尊,而对于低认同连续性的个体来说,积极怀旧并不具有提升整体自尊的作用。而一步的检验发现,相对于低认同连续性的被试,高认同连续性被试通过积极怀旧引发了更多的积极情感。 本研究最终得出如下结论: 1.怀旧可以分为积极怀旧与消极怀旧;其中积极怀旧以积极情绪为主,涉及到个体的积极过去;而消极怀旧以消极情绪为主,涉及到个体的消极过去。 2.在大学生群体中,积极怀旧具有提升状态整体自尊的作用;消极怀旧具有降低状态整体自尊的作用、状态性外显行为自尊的作用; 3.在中老年人中,在消极心境下,积极怀旧具有提升状态性社会自尊的作用; 4.在大学生群体中,相对连续性低的个体,在认同连续性高的个体中,积极怀旧上有提升状态整体自尊的作用;相对于认同连续性高的个体,在认同连续性低的个体中,消极怀旧具有降低状态性社会自尊的作用。 5.怀旧对内隐自尊无影响。
其他摘要Five studies addressed questions about nostalgia : the content of nostalgic experiences, the proposition that nostalgia increases or decreases self-esteem and this effect is moderated by the individuals’ mood and identity continuity. The purpose of the Preliminary study is to confirm that nostalgia relates both to the positive things and negative things in the past.147 college students recalled for its nostalgic events. And as we expected, nostalgia involved both positive things and negative things in the past. The purpose of study1 was to confirm that there are two types of nostalgia: positive nostalgia, which actively involves positive things in the past, and containing more positive affect; negative nostalgia, which actively involves negative things in the past, and containing more negative affect. 89 college students were randomly divided into three conditions: Positive nostalgia condition, in which they would recall a positive nostalgic event; negative nostalgia condition, in which they would recall a negative nostalgic event; and control condition, in which they would recall a ordinary event. As we expected, individuals in the positive nostalgia condition and the negative nostalgia condition has no significant difference in state nostalgia, and, individuals in the two conditions have more state nostalgia than that of the control group; individuals in the positive nostalgia condition reported more positive affect than those in the control condition; and individuals in the negative nostalgia condition reported more negative affect than those in the control condition. Study 2 was aimed to assess the interactive effects of mood and nostalgia on explicit self-esteem, and implicit self-esteem. 124 college students, prior measuring the mood, were randomly divided into two conditions: nostalgia condition, in which they would recall a nostalgic event; and control condition, in which they would recall a ordinary event. At last, the state nostalgia, explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem were measured. It was found that there are no interactive effects of mood and nostalgia on explicit self-esteem, and implicit self-esteem. And individuals in the nostalgia condition have no difference with the control condition in explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem. But, after removing the data which involving negative events, individuals in the nostalgia condition has a higher self esteem explicit general self-esteem than those in the control condition. However, there are no interactive effects of mood and nostalgia on explicit self-esteem, and implicit self-esteem. Study 3 was designed in order to explore the relationship between positive and negative nostalgia and explicit general self-esteem, explicit behavior self-esteem, explicit social self-esteem, explicit body self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, to assess the interactive effects of age mood and nostalgia on explicit self-esteem, and implicit self-esteem.375 college studentsand 105 community residents who are mainly elder ,prior measuring the mood, were randomly divided into three conditions: Positive nostalgia condition, in which they would recall a positive nostalgic event; negative nostalgia condition, in which they would recall a negative nostalgic event; and control condition, in which they would recall a ordinary event. At last, the state nostalgia, explicit general self-esteem, explicit behavior self-esteem, explicit social self-esteem, explicit body self-esteem and implicit self-esteem were measured. It was found that positive nostalgia ncreased the college students’ explicit general self-esteem, and negative nostalgia decreased the college students’ explicit general self-esteem and explicit behavior self-esteem. And positive nostalgia increased the community residents’ social self-esteem with negative mood. Study 4 was designed in order to assess the interactive effects of identity continuity and nostalgia on explicit general self-esteem, explicit behavior self-esteem, explicit social self-esteem, explicit body self-esteem, implicit self-esteem. On the basis of study3, after the state nostalgia was measured, individuals complete the identity continuity measurement, then, they completed the explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem measurement. It was found that there is a interactive effect of identity continuity and positive nostalgia on explicit general self-esteem. Positive nostalgia increased college students’ explicit general self-esteem, but this effect limited to individuals with high identity continuity. And further analysis found that, relative to the individuals with low identity continuity, those with high identity continuity reported more positive affect. There is also a interactive effect of identity continuity and negative nostalgia on explicit social self-esteem. Negative nostalgia decreased explicit social self-esteem, but this effect limited to individuals with low identity continuity. The conclusions are as following: 1. There are two types of nostalgia: positive nostalgia, which actively involves positive things in the past, and containing more positive affect; negative nostalgia, which actively involves negative things in the past, and containing more negative affect. 2. Positive nostalgia can increase college students’ explicit general self-esteem; Negative nostalgia can decrease college students’ explicit general self-esteem and explicit peform self-esteem. 3. Positive nostalgia can increase elderly people’s explicit social self-esteem with negative mood. 4. There are two interactive effects of identity continuity and nostalgia on explicit self-esteem. Positive nostalgia increased explicit general self-esteem, but this effect limited to individuals with high identity continuity. And the reason for this result is that, compared to individuals of low identity continuity, those of high continuity have more positive affect in positive nostalgia. Negative nostalgia decreased explicit social self-esteem, but this effect limited to individuals with low identity continuity. 5. Nostalgia does not influence the implicit self-esteem.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20316
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吕少博. 不同年龄中怀旧与自尊的关系:心境、认同连续性的调节作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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