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一般化社会信念--社会通则和亲社会行为的关系研究
马溧莉
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2010-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词社会通则 亲社会行为 合作 分享 帮助
摘要本研究主要目的是探讨一般化社会信念——社会通则(Social Axioms)和亲社会行为的关系。社会通则是一种稳定的社会信念,具有跨情境的一致性,可以预测和解释一般化的人类行为,以及不同文化下的个体行为差异(Leung, 2002)。社会通则量表包括五个维度,分别是愤世嫉俗、付出有回报、社会多样性、宗教观和命运控制。前人的研究发现,社会通则和人类行为的诸多方面都存在相关,例如,积极的应对策略,孝顺行为,和对老年群体的偏见等(Chen, Bond, & Tang, 2007; Safdar, Lewis, & Daneshpour, 2006)。 亲社会行为是个体表现出来的自愿帮助他人的行为,包括分享,捐赠,安慰,帮助等行为都可以被称为亲社会行为。从进化论的角度,亲社会行为被认为是人类生存进化而来的适应性行为。亲社会行为的概念内容涵盖广泛,包括合作、助人和帮助等一切积极的行为。长期以来,影响亲社会行为产生的因素是社会心理学研究的重要领域。早期的研究主要集中于影响亲社会行为的情境变量,诸如旁观者效应(Bystander Intervention)和责任扩散现象(Diffusion of Responsibility),随后的研究不仅仅关注影响亲社会行为的情境因素,同时也开始关注个体差异的因素,包括认知,情感,人格,态度,信念等。 前人的研究对社会通则和人类行为的诸多方面,进行了验证。本研究试图考察社会通则和亲社会行为的关系。研究采用了问卷、实验和现场实验的方法,对这一问题进行了深入的探讨。研究一采用问卷调查的方法,考察了社会通则和亲社会行为倾向,被试为143名北京某所大学的在校大学生,研究结果表明,社会通则的五个维度和亲社会行为倾向之间存在相关关系。为了进一步考察社会通则和亲社会行为的作用机制,研究二、研究三和研究四分别又选取了三类具有代表性的亲社会行为,即合作,分享和帮助,采用实验室实验和现场实验的方法,考察社会通则和这三类典型亲社会行为的关系机制。实验结果表明,社会通则的付出有回报维度和合作行为相关;愤世嫉俗维度和分享行为相关;态度能预测帮助行为,愤世嫉俗维度对于态度和帮助行为的关系具有调节作用。
其他摘要The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of social axioms (a kind of generalized belief) and prosocial behaviors. Social axioms are defined as generalized beliefs about oneself, the social and physical environment, or the spiritual world. As suggested by Leung et al. (2002), one of major functions of these social axioms is to guide individual’s behaviors. Previous studies demonstrated social axioms’ five dimensions were related to different aspects of human behavior, such as coping style, finial behavior, and bias attitudes towards the aged people. Prosocial behavior refers to individuals’ tendency to undertake voluntary actions aimed at benefiting others, such as sharing, cooperation, and helping. From an evolutionary point of view, the characteristic of helpfulness might have evolved as it contributes to individual genes being passed on to the survival of the individual genes being passed on to the survival of the pieces. The early studies of prosocial behavior were focusing on the environmental factors of why people offer to help. For example, bystander’s intervention and the diffusion of responsibility may reduce people’s tendency to volunteer to help. In the subsequent studies, much more researches have been conducted to analysis why people help, and people’s empathy, personality, attitude and belief have all been found to be related to prosocial behaviors. As previous studies of social axioms have demonstrated the relationship of social axioms and behaviors, the question raised in present study is whether there are relation exiting on social axioms and the prosocial behaviors. To answer that question, we designed a serious of studies in our study. The study measurements included survey, laboratory experimentation and field experimentation. In study one, questionnaires were used to test the relationship of prosocial behavior tendencies and social axioms. Participants were 143 undergraduate students in Beijing, and data results demonstrated that the five subscales of social axioms were correlated with prosocial behavior tendencies. In the studies two, study three and study four, both experimental design and field experimental design were adopted. We selected three typicial prosocial behaviors which are cooperation, sharing and helping to further analysize the functional mechanism of social axioms’s predictiong power to prosocial behavior. Data results found that social axioms’s dimension of reward of application was correlated with cooperation, and social cynicism was correlated with sharing. Attitude could predict helping, and there exited a moderation of social cynicism and attitudes with helping behavior.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20317
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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马溧莉. 一般化社会信念--社会通则和亲社会行为的关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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