PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
工作记忆前摄干扰抑制作用的研究:来自行为和神经学的证据
Alternative TitleA Study of Inhibition of Proactive Interference on Working Memory: Behavior and Neuron Evidences
孙大明
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor罗劲
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword工作记忆 抑制 前摄干扰 Fn400 N170
Abstract工作记忆指在复杂的认知活动中,短暂的保存和处理那些必要信息的记忆系统,是人类重要的认知功能之一。工作记忆的抑制功能决定以工作记忆为基础的其他认知功能,因此考察工作记忆对干扰的抑制功能具有重要的研究意义。 前摄干扰范式是用于工作记忆抑制功能研究的一种常用范式,以往实验通常利用在前一、两个工作记忆试次中出现过的刺激/英文字母作为本工作记忆试次的干扰性探测刺激来制造前摄抑制;然而,在这样设计之下,即使是那些没有在前一、两个试次中出现过的“非前摄抑制项目”,也已经在整个的实验流程中被重复过很多次,因而无法获得较为纯净的非抑制性控制条件作为参照。再者,工作记忆随着时间的变化,其记忆痕迹也是会变化的,而以往的研究没有探讨不同的延时条件对于干扰抑制的影响。为了解决上述两个问题,首先我们采用以汉字作为材料的延迟样本匹配范式,在每个试次中首先向被试呈现两个汉字作为靶刺激,短暂延迟后,呈现一个探测刺激,被试需要判断探测刺激是否属于靶刺激。通过采用与靶刺激相似的探测刺激,可以对被试的反应产生干扰。另外,采用长短两种延时条件(9秒和3秒),研究不同延时条件下对于干扰的抑制机制的异同。 本研究分为两个实验,首先是行为实验,考察本研究实验范式是否能够产生干扰效应。结果表明,与以往的最近探测刺激范式、n-back范式和指导性遗忘范式一样,本实验范式也可以产生干扰效应。另外,本实验还发现了目标刺激与探测刺激间隔时间长短的不同,可以引起反应时和正确率的变化,即长延时情况下被试的反应时显著加快,正确率虽然没有达到显著,但是也比短延时条件下更好。实验二在实验一的基础上,我们同时又记录了被试的脑电。在行为结果上重复了第一个实验的结果,即发现了干扰效应也发现了延时效应。脑电结果分析发现,位于中前部的FN400,在熟悉负性刺激条件(类似匹配,探测刺激与目标刺激很形似)波幅显著小于非熟悉负性刺激条件(探测刺激与目标刺激不匹配)。这可能是一种新旧效应,如果探测刺激与靶刺激不一致(非熟悉),则引起更负的FN400,而对于干扰的抑制也在这个时间段发生,通过减少加工来抑制熟悉性的干扰。另外,本研究中还发现了顶枕部N170的差异,长延时条件的N170波幅高于短延时条件。这表明,在长延时条件下,除了与短延时一样依赖于熟悉性以外,被试还会在探测刺激出现的早期,就对于字形的加工给予更多的注意,从而保证后面能够更快更有效的解决干扰,在行为结果上表现为延时效应。
Other AbstractWorking memory is an impartment cognitive function for human being which can maintain and process limited information temporally. Inhibition of working memory plays a role to other cognitions based on working memory. It is important to study the mechanism of inhibition to interference. Proactive interference paradigm is used to study working memory in many studies. Previous researches made proactive interference by control the present times of probe stimulus-use current probe stimulus as target stimulus for the last trail. But, the stimulus that do not present last trail was presented several times before because the number of letter is limited. Then there is no pure control condition without lure under this design. In addition, when the duration of maintain change the memory traces will change too, but there is no research investigate the effect of different retention intervals. To resolve two problems mentioned, we use delayed matching-to-sample paradigm and the stimulus are Chinese character. Participants are asked whether the prober stimulus is same to target stimulus. The interference is evoked by similarity between probe and target stimulus. Furthermore, we use two type of retention intervals (3s & 9s) to investigate whether the same mechanisms underlie inhibition of working memory at different intervals. This study include two experiments, the first one is a behavior experiment to test whether this new paradigm can also cause interfering effect. As expected, this paradigm is same to recent-probe task, n-back task and directed-forgetting task and can increase reaction time and decrease accuracy. Moreover, we found that the performance is better when the interval is 9 seconds. We call it interval effect. Then, based on this experiment we make another one which record participants’ EEG to study the neurological mechanism of interfering effect and interval effect. Amplitude of FN400 under familiar negative condition (probe stimulation is not match target stimulation but it is similar to target stimulation) is less then unfamiliar negative condition (probe stimulation is nether match target stimulation nor similar to target stimulation). This is an ole-new effect and familiar interference is inhibited at the mean time. Furthermore, we find N170 at parietal-occipital area was larger when the interval is 9 seconds then 3 seconds. This indicates that when the interval is long participants pay more attention to probe stimulation in the early stage to resolve interference. This is different from the short interval condition that participants inhibit interference only by inhibit familiarity. Therefore, interval effect is found in this study. 
Subject Area认知神经科学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20349
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙大明. 工作记忆前摄干扰抑制作用的研究:来自行为和神经学的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
工作记忆前摄干扰抑制作用的研究:来自行为(1647KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAView Application Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[孙大明]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[孙大明]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[孙大明]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: 工作记忆前摄干扰抑制作用的研究:来自行为和神经学的证据.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.