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学前儿童泛化信任和认知性信任的发展
其他题名The Development of Generalized Trust and Epistemic Trust of Preschool Children
刘黎
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词学前儿童 泛化信任 认识性信任 代际传递 经验学习 冲突信息源范式 冲突信息源范式
摘要信任的建立,影响个体的人际关系的建立,影响合作的形成,有助于人际关系的和谐对个体的发展以及心理健康都有着密切的关系,是个体社会适应的重要标志(Bernath & Feshbach, 1995; Rotenberg et al. , 2005; Rotter, 1967)。信任也是诚信的含义之一(吴继霞, 黄希庭, 2012),对经济与社会发展有重要的作用(Knack & Keefer, 1997)。前人采用了不同的研究范式探查了儿童泛化信任和认识性信任的发展。但是目前很少有研究涉及4-6岁学前儿童的泛化信任及其代际传递;另外,目前对于泛化信任与认识性信任之间的关系还也是人们关注的问题。本研究旨在探讨学前儿童泛化信任和认识性信任的发展。 研究一考察学前儿童的信任的发展及其与母亲信任水平的关系,进一步推进信任代际传递的研究;同时从学习发展的角度,考察儿童是否能从负性交往经验中学习并调整其信任水平。研究二将认识性信任视作一种殊化信任,采用单一信息源和冲突信息源两种范式,考察学龄前儿童认识性信任的发展特点及其影响因素。研究丰富了信任发展的理论,为儿童教育实践提供心理学理论依据。 本研究在幼儿园选取4岁儿童64人、5岁儿童62人、6岁儿童63人,采用多种任务范式,探查了儿童泛化信任和认识性信任的发展及影响因素,得出的主要结果有:1) 随着年龄增长,4-6岁儿童的泛化信任水平有显著下降; 2) 6岁儿童的信任水平与家长的信任水平有显著相关,表现出代际传递的特点,并且该关系不受儿童自身安全依恋水平与观点采择能力的影响;3) 4-6岁儿童已经能从信任的负性结果中学习并降低信任水平;4) 在单信息源范式下,4-6岁儿童知识信任的年龄差异不显著;5) 单信息源范式下,6岁组儿童对陌生人的认识性信任与其泛化信任水平相关显著;6) 冲突信息源范式下,4-6岁儿童在的认识性信任受到年龄以及信息提供者的熟悉性和身份的影响。
其他摘要The establishment of trust is an important symbol of social adjustment of individuals, which influences the building of individual's interpersonal relationship, affects the formation of cooperation, contributes to the harmony of interpersonal relationships, and is closely related to individual's own development and mental health (Bernath & Feshbach, 1995; Rotenberg et al. , 2005; Rotter, 1967). Trust also is one of the meanings of integrity (Wu & Huang, 2012), which plays an important role in economic and social development (Knack & Keefer, 1997). Researchers have adopted various paradigms to explore children’s generalized trust and epistemic trust. Nevertheless, very few researches has probed into young children’s generalized trust and studied the relationship between generalized trust and epistemic trust. The current study aimed to explore preschool children’s development of generalized trust and epistemic trust. In Study One, a further advancement of the existed researches on parental transmission of generalized trust is conducted, trying to investigate whether preschoolers’ generalized trust could be influenced by their parents. Furthermore, Study One explores whether trusting children will turn to be less trusting when positive feedback is absent. Study Two takes epistemic trust as specific trust, and adopts both “single-source” paradigm and “conflicting sources” paradigm to investigate the development of preschoolers’ epistemic trust and its affecting factors. The research will enrich the theory of trust development as well as provide educational practices with the implications of psychological theory. In present research, sixty-four 4-year-old, sixty-two 5-yerar-old and sixty-three 6-year-old children were recruited from kindergartens. Multiple tasks were employed to investigate children’s development of generalized trust and epistemic trust and their affecting factors. The main findings are as follows:1) From 4 to 6 years old, the children’s generalized trust declines with age; 2) The level of generalized trust of 6-year-old children is significantly related with their parent’s trust level and the characteristic of parental transmission. Furthermore, the transmission is not influenced by children’s secure attachment level and perspective-taking ability; 3) Preschool children will turn to be less trusting after negative feedback is given, showing that they could learn from the experience in trust development; 4) In “single-source” paradigm, 4 to 6 years old children do not differ significantly in epistemic trust; 5) In “single-source” paradigm, 6 year old children’s epistemic trust is significantly related with their generalized trust; 6) In “conflicting sources” paradigm, preschool children’s epistemic trust is influenced by children’s age and the familiarity and status of the informant.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20353
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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刘黎. 学前儿童泛化信任和认知性信任的发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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