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吃亏是福:一种基于值的选择模型
其他题名Benefit from Choosing to Suffer an Offered Loss: A Worth-Based Choice
唐辉
学位类型博士
导师李纾
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词基于值的选择 (Worth-based Choice) 基于价值的选择 (Value-based Choice) 价值最大化
摘要当前一些主流的理论告诉我们,人们会遵从个人利益最大化原则,选择能够直接给自己带来最大好处的选项。然而,现实中人们在很多情况下却会主动选择吃亏的选项,并非一味遵从价值最大化原则做决策。Li等人提出和发展了一种“基于值的选择”(Worth-Based Choice) 模型来解释和预测这种选择表面上看会带来损失的选项的行为。本研究在结合中国文化中的“报”之规范,以及西方的社会交换理论、合作理论等文献进行分析的基础上,提出假设:相对于“基于价值的选择”(Value-Based Choice),遵从“基于值的选择”模型做决策能够给个体带来更大的物质获益和精神获益。本研究分别通过情境研究、实验室研究以及现场调研这3个子研究检验了上述假设。研究1首先通过两个假设情境实验,初步验证了“基于值的选择”模型能够给个体带来更大的物质获益和精神获益。研究2通过自行开发的游戏任务(点数选择游戏和传球游戏),从行为层面上寻找到了进一步的证据。研究3在开发一套测量两种不同决策倾向的情境测验的基础上,通过对房地产和医药行业的销售人员的现实调研,为研究假设寻找到了现实生活层面的证据。综合而言,本研究一方面检验和发展了一种全新的决策模型——基于值的选择,揭示了“吃亏是福”背后的运作机制;另一方面,通过对人类社会互动情境的模拟实验研究,以及对“基于值的选择”的概念维度的探索,增进了对“基于值的选择”机制与人类决策过程的理解。
其他摘要According to some current mainstream theories, when facing a choice, one usually follows the principle of maximizing personal interest and chooses the option that may bring him the largest profit. However, in real life, when making decisions, people in many situations are willing to choose to suffer an offered loss rather than always follow the principle of value maximization. Li et al once put forward and developed Worth-Based Choice model that can explain and forecast the action of choosing the option that brings loss on the surface. On the basis of consulting the Chinese concept of ‘pao’ and analyzing western literature concerning social exchange theory, cooperation theory and other relative theories, the author advanced the following hypothesis: compared with Value-Based Choice model, Worth-Based Choice model can bring individuals larger profit, both materially and spiritually. This study testified that hypothesis through three sub-studies: scenario study, laboratorial study and field study. The first study mainly contained two experiments under assumed conditions and initially verified that the worth-based choice model can bring individuals larger material and spiritual profit. The second adopted our self-developed task-based games (points-selecting and Cyber ball-tossing games) and found proofs on the dimension of action to further testify the hypothesis. The third is based on the development of a set of tests aimed at measuring the two kinds of decision-making tendency, and though a survey of salesmen in the real estate and pharmaceutical industry and relative studies, found proofs for the hypothesis on the dimension of real life. To sum up, this study has two achievements: it testified and developed a new decision-making model—Worth-Based Choice which reveals the psychological mechanism behind the concept that one can benefit from choosing an offered loss; through simulation experiments of inaction in human society and an exploration of different aspects of the concept of Worth-Based Choice, it helped us get a better understanding of the mechanism of Worth-Based Choice and the decision-making process of people.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20355
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
唐辉. 吃亏是福:一种基于值的选择模型[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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