PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作记忆的影响机制
其他题名Influence of Complexity and Familiarity on Action Memory in Children
王腊梅
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词动作模仿 动作再认 熟悉度 复杂度 学前儿童 跨文化
摘要对日常工具使用动作的记忆是一项必备的生活能力。研究儿童对这类动作的记忆,无论是对动作记忆的基础理论完善,还是对儿童的生活实践指导,都具有重要的意义。本研究首次把动作复杂度作为一个系统操纵的自变量引入儿童动作记忆研究,考察动作复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作记忆的影响。我们选择中国和德国两种文化背景下的学前儿童作为被试,使用精心选择的不同复杂度和熟悉度的日常工具使用动作录像材料,以模仿实验范式和再认记忆范式来探究复杂度和熟悉度影响儿童动作记忆的机制。 研究一通过三个实验,采用模仿实验范式,研究动作的复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作模仿的影响。实验1结果显示,中国儿童的模仿成绩受到复杂度和复杂度的影响,模仿错误模式主要受到复杂度的影响,表现为:在模仿简单动作时,方式错误多于结果错误;在模仿复杂动作时,结果错误多于方式错误。实验2使用不同的动作材料并且增加了动作数量,对中国和德国儿童的动作模仿进行跨文化的比较,结果显示,在动作复杂度和熟悉度具有跨文化一致性的条件下,中国和德国儿童的动作模仿成绩和错误模式没有文化差异,此外还验证了实验1得出的复杂度和熟悉度影响儿童模仿成绩以及复杂度影响动作模仿错误模式的结论。实验3选用不同文化背景下熟悉度不同的材料,验证了动作错误类型与复杂度的交互作用,并且发现中德儿童在模仿文化熟悉度不同的动作时,只在复杂动作的模仿中出现了文化差异。 研究二由两个实验组成,通过操纵动作的方式改变和结果改变,采用再认记忆范式,研究动作的复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作记忆的影响。实验4对中国和德国儿童的再认行为进行跨文化比较,发现儿童的再认成绩主要受到复杂度的影响;无论动作的复杂度和熟悉度如何,儿童对动作结果改变的再认总是好于对动作方式改变的再认;此外,中国和德国儿童的再认成绩和模式没有显著的文化差异。实验5比较中国成人和中国儿童的动作再认行为绩效,结果显示:相对于儿童而言,成人的再认成绩显著更高,反应时显著更短(这验证了我们关于工作记忆容量影响动作记忆的假设);与儿童一样,成人对动作结果改变的再认也总是好于对动作方式改变的再认;儿童的再认绩效模式受动作复杂度影响较大,而成人的再认绩效模式受动作熟悉度影响较大;儿童没有表现出性别差异,但成人出现了性别差异:女性比男性的再认正确率更高,主要表现为对动作方式的再认正确率更高。 基于上述研究发现,本研究提出了一种崭新的关于儿童动作模仿和再认受复杂度影响的双加工模型,推断儿童在模仿和再认过程中动作加工的异同:在模仿时,儿童根据动作的复杂度不同,在加工简单动作时会选择结果驱动的加工,在加工复杂动作时选择方式驱动的加工;而在再认时,儿童的加工是结果驱动的,这一整体加工模式不受动作复杂度的影响。本研究揭示了儿童动作加工认知系统的新特性,进一步深化了我们对儿童动作记忆机制的理解,为未来儿童动作记忆的研究和发展开辟了新的方向。
其他摘要Although research on action imitation in children indicates children represent action according to a goal-directed hierarchy, no previous research has investigated which characters of action influence the representation of goals. This dissertation introduced action complexity as a main variant into children’s action memory research for the first time, to explore the effects of action complexity and familiarity on action learning and memory. Using elaborately selected tool-use action video clips of different complexity and familiarity from Chinese and German cultures, the imitation and recognition paradigms experiments were conducted among Chinese and German preschoolers. In a first experiment with Chinese children, the results indicated that preschooler’s imitation performance is influenced by both action complexity and familiarity. Furthermore, an interesting imitation error pattern was discovered: when imitating simple actions children made more means than end errors, whereas more end errors were made for complex actions. A second experiment with both Chinese and German children confirmed the result pattern observed in the first experiment, using a different group and bigger amount of action materials. Performances showed a high cross-cultural stability, which indicates that action imitation is a basic learning mechanism thereby uninfluenced by cultures. The results of a third experiment with cross-cultural children and materials of different cross-cultural familiarity, confirmed the interaction between imitation error type and complexity, and revealed the culture difference through familiarity difference. Preschoolers’ recognition performance in a cross-cultural setting was examined in a fourth experiment. Children displayed a significant tendency to recognize action end better than action means, regardless of the complexity and familiarity of action. Furthermore, no cross-cultural differences were explored. The last experiment was conducted to explore the developmental difference of action recognition between Chinese adults and children. Adults’ recognition performances were better than children as we expected, which confirmed our hypothesis that the capacity of working memory influences action memory. Children’s recognition pattern seemed influenced more by action complexity, while adults’ impacted more by action familiarity. Gender differences were found only among adults. Women showed an advantage over men at correct rejection of changed actions, especially at correct rejection of means-changed actions. Overall, the results of this dissertation suggest a new Dual Processing Model of action imitation and recognition in preschoolers, and open a discussion about the difference between imitation and recognition mechanisms in healthy children. These findings have implications for contemporary theories of action processing, point to commonalities in the mechanism of action memory in different cultures, and open the door for future research into the development of action memory organization.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20379
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王腊梅. 复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作记忆的影响机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
复杂度和熟悉度对儿童动作记忆的影响机制.(1167KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SA请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[王腊梅]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[王腊梅]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[王腊梅]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。