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大尺度环境中人类的地标表征与导航策略
其他题名Human Landmark Representation and Navigation Strategy in Large-scale Environment
王琳
学位类型硕士
导师牟炜民
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词空间认知 导航 地标 虚拟现实
摘要本研究由3个实验组成,测试了人类在大尺度环境中习得并使用了何种地标知识以及相应的策略(地标导向、地点再认反应、拓扑性导航等)进行空间导航。在实验一中,被试在虚拟环境中学习4条路线,随后被要求判断每个路口的转弯方向。测试时建筑物的位置将在路口内或路口间调换。我们发现当地标在路口内变换时,被试的成绩受到影响,而当地标在路口间变换时,被试的成绩未受到影响。这一结果显示人们在陌生的大尺度环境中的导航策略是地标导向。实验二、三测试了对环境的熟悉度如何影响导航策略。被试学习一条路线一次或五次,该路线中每个路口包含一个地标。而后被试在地标移除、地标正确呈现、地标复制和地标错置等条件下以此判断每个路口的转弯方向。结果显示,被试仅学习一次后即可建立转弯方向与正确呈现的地标之间的联结;学习一次的被试无法区分两个相同的地标,而学习五次的被试可以辨别正确的地标位置;即使在没有地标呈现的条件下,被试依然可以判断正确的转弯方向,但正确率低于地标呈现时的正确率。这些结果表明了人们在不同的学习阶段习得了不同的地标表征,并且使用了不同的导航策略。
其他摘要Three experiments distinguished different landmark knowledge and related navigation strategies of human adults in a large-scale environment. In experiment one, participants learned 4 routes in a virtual city and were required to reproduce the route at test when landmarks were shifted within or across intersections. The result showed that performance was impaired when landmarks were shifted within intersections but was not impaired when landmarks were shifted across intersections. This finding suggested people use landmark guidance as navigation strategy in large-scale unfamiliar environment. In experiment two and three, we tested how familiarity affects navigation strategy. Participants learned a route in a virtual city once or for five times. One distinctive landmark was placed at each intersection of the route. At test, participants were required to make turnings in each intersection when the landmark was removed, correctly placed, duplicated on the other side, or misplaced from another intersection. The results showed that participants could associate the correct turning direction with the landmark that was placed correctly even after learning the route once; participants could not distinguish between two identical landmarks after learning the route once but could do so after learning the route for five times; participants could select the correct turning direction even without landmarks although the performance was inferior to the performance with the presence of landmarks. These results suggested that humans develop different landmark knowledge and navigation strategies with different navigation experience.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20397
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王琳. 大尺度环境中人类的地标表征与导航策略[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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