PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
婴幼儿的公平偏好
其他题名Inequity Aversion of Infants and Toddlers
王雯
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词婴幼儿 公平偏好 选择范式 亲社会行为发展
摘要 
公平行为时道德的核心(LoBue, et al, 2011),也是合作的基础(Fehr, Bernhard, & Rockenbach, 2008)。前人采用了不同的研究范式探查儿童公平行为和公平概念的发展,但目前对于儿童何时开始出现公平行为和公平偏好还没有定论。大多数研究认为3-6岁儿童开始发展出公平的概念,从而表现出公平行为,但是很少有研究涉及3岁以下的婴幼儿。本研究改进实验范式,探查婴幼儿作为分配者、被分配者和旁观者时的公平行为和公平偏好。同时,本研究探查了社会环境因素与婴幼儿公平偏好的关系。 本研究得出的主要结果有: 1)随着年龄的增长,婴幼儿的公平行为有显著增加。1.5-2.5岁的婴幼儿在作为分配者时,已经表现出了公平偏好。相比较给自己和他人分配而言,婴幼儿作为第三方给他人分配物品时,会更多地表现出公平分配的行为。2.5-3.5岁的儿童则不论自己是否作为被分配者之一,都公平地分配物品。 2)婴幼儿作为被分配者时,1.5-2.5岁的婴幼儿在当分配结果不利于自己时,更多地表现出公平偏好;而2.5-3.5岁婴幼儿不论分配结果是有利于自己还是有利于他人,他们都比1.5-2.5岁组婴幼儿更多地表现出公平偏好。 3)1.5-2.5岁婴幼儿作为旁观者时,不能对公平和不公平的分配者作出选择;随着年龄的增加,2.5-3.5岁的婴幼儿开始偏好选择公平的分配者。 4)儿童的公平偏好与家长的社会价值取向相关不显著。 5)社会经济地位对婴幼儿公平行为的发展影响不显著。 结论:本研究发现了2岁的婴幼儿就已经具有公平偏好和公平行为。社会环境因素对1.5-3.5岁儿童公平行为和公平偏好的影响不显著。
其他摘要Fairness is central to morality (LoBue, et al, 2011) and is the developmental roots of cooperation (Fehr, Bernhard, & Rockenbach, 2008). Various paradigms and tasks are employed to investigate the development of fairness behavior and fairness conception. The origins of fairness behaviors, however, are still not clearly understood, and the age when inequity aversion shows up remains a matter of debate. Previous research suggested that children begin to understand fairness between the ages of three and six, depending on the context and method used. However, there is little clear evidence that children have inequity aversion before the age of three. In the current study, toddlers' and young children's inequity aversion and fairness behavior were investigated through refined paradigms.We also testedthe relationship between social enviomental factor and inequity aversion of toddlers and young children. The key results of this study were: 1) For toddlers aged 1.5 to 3.5 years, fairness behavior increases with age, and they show inequity aversion when acting as a distributor. Toddlers tend to distribute candies more equally when they are third party distributors than when they are also receivers. Young children aged 2.5 to 3.5 years, however, distribute candies equally regardless of whether they are receivers. 2) When 1.5 to 2.5 year group receive less candies than their partners, they tend to like the fair distributors more than the unfair ones. 2.5 to 3.5 year group show preference for fair distributors regardless of whether they receive more or less. 3) The older the children, the better can they evaluate distributors to be fair or unfair. 1.5 to 2.5 year group cannot distinguish between fair and unfair distributors as a bystander. And this ability enhances with age. 4) Inequity aversion by children has no significant correlation with neither social value orientation of their parents nor socialeconomical status. This study finds the fairness behavior and inequality aversion in toddlers. There is no corrolation between social enviormental factors and inequality aversion in toddlers and young childrens.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20403
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王雯. 婴幼儿的公平偏好[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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