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Alternative TitleGeneral Belief in a Just World of Chinese and Its Function in Psychological Adaptation
Abstract世道正义理论(Just-World Theory)认为,个体有一种相信“好有好报、恶有恶报”的强烈需要,这样就显得其所处的环境是“稳定、有序”的。但是,世道正义观(Belief in a Just World, BJW)毕竟是对事实上并不总是公正的客观世界的一种“正向错觉”;尤其是指向他人或整体的一般世道正义观(General BJW),在成年人中表现并不明显,并且它独立于个人世道正义观(Personal BJW)、与反社会态度正向关联。然而,对弱势群体及落后国家民众的研究却暗示,他们对一般世道正义观的心理表征可能有所不同。 本论文首先调研了中国四个城市的普通成年人(研究1A)、地震遇难者家属(研究1B)及贫困地区青少年(研究1C),发现生活相对艰难的中国人持有较高的一般世道正义观和较低的个人世道正义观,且其一般世道正义观独立于个人世道正义观正向地预测心理坚韧。其次,通过未来关注的跨文化调研(研究2A)、未来取向的真实生活启动(研究2B)以及实验室启动(研究2C)研究,证实了一般世道正义观通过长远取向来起作用;当遭遇不公威胁时,长远取向启动组被试的情绪压力更大,通过报复和贬低受害者来应对威胁的防御倾向也更明显。 进而,涵盖全国13个城市的更大范围调研再次验证了研究1、研究2关于一般世道正义观的凸显效应及其心理适应功能的发现(研究3A)。内隐联想测验(Implicit Associate Test, IAT)也验证了世道正义观的内隐区分,被试在“自我-委屈”的联合任务比在“他人-委屈”的联合任务上反应要更快,认为自己、而不是他人遭到了不公平的对待;同时还发现对“他人-应得”反应越快的被试,其内隐未来取向越明显、外显的消极情绪越少,但利他行为也越少(研究3B)。 总之,外显和内隐证据均表明,中国人持有强健的一般世道正义观,即认为自己遭遇了不公、而他人或世界整体仍然正义美好。这与弱势群体的秩序需要与补偿正义有关,中国传统文化历来宣扬的“天行健”也能部分解释这一结果。然而,这一强健的世道正义观通过未来取向与个体的逆境心理适应正向关联,而与社会层面的理性决策和利他倾向负向关联,却值得我们深思和进一步探讨。
Other AbstractAccording to the Just-World Theory, individuals need to believe that they live in a world where good people get rewarded and bad people get punished, so that they can live in a environment as though it was stable and orderly. Belief in a just world (BJW) is a kind of positive delusion of the objective world where justice doesn’t always prevail upon injustice. In particular, the general BJW concerning others and the whole world, which loses its importance during adulthood, relates to anti-social attitude independent of personal BJW. However, researches on disadvantaged group and people in developing countries revealed that they construed general BJW in the different way. The current research recruited ordinary adults in four cities of China (study 1A), adult survivors losing their family in the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (study 1B) and adolescents in the poverty-stricken county (study 1C), and found that Chinese in harsh realities held more general BJW than personal BJW, and the general BJW predicted their resilience independent of personal BJW. Meanwhile, the cross-cultural survey on future consideration (study 2A), the priming of future in the real life (study 2B) and the experimental priming of long-term investments (study 2C) showed that general BJW functioned in the long term perspective, and participants with strong general BJW and long-term investments expressed more emotional stress, and reported more tendency of perpetrator revenge and victim blame when encountering the justice threat, whereas those with no long-term investments didn’t reveal this model. Furthermore, the big sample covering 13 cities nationwide replicated the robust effect of general BJW (study 3A). Also, the Implicit Associate Test (IAT) confirmed the self-others distinction of justice motive. That is, participants performed faster in the association task of the self category and the wrongedness category than that of the others category and the wrongedness category, namely they believed that themselves rather than others were treated unfairly. At mean time, those faster in others-deserved association task responded faster in the self-future association task and revealed less negative emotion, while preferred less altruism behavior (study 3B). In sum, both explicit and implicit evidence demonstrated that Chinese revealed robust general BJW, believing that the world is more just generally than for themselve. These findings could be explained by the need for order and compensate justice of the disadvantaged group, and the natural transcending in Chinese traditional culture also accounts for this phenomenon partially. Nevertheless, the paradox that general BJW relates positively to individuals’ adaptation via the long term perspective in harsh realties but negatively to prosocial rationality and altruism, should be seriously concerned in future directions.
Subject Area发展与教育心理学
Keyword秩序需要 世道正义观 坚韧 弱势 长远取向
Degree Discipline心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴胜涛. 中国人的一般世道正义观及其心理适应功能[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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