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汉语语篇层级性和关系性韵律特征和理解加工
其他题名Prosodic features and comprehension of hierarchy and relation in Chinese discourse
杨晓虹
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词语篇 层级性 关系性 时长 音高 事件相关电位 自控速阅读
摘要语篇是人类交际的基本形式。语言的研究从字词,句子扩展到语篇的水平是必然的。而迄今为止,在语篇水平上所做的研究相对较少,很多问题尚未得到考察。本文通过五大部分研究,从语篇的层级性和关系性两个方面入手考察语篇结构的韵律特征及其对理解的影响。 首先,通过三个研究考察语篇层级性和关系性的韵律特征。研究一通过两个实验(实验1和实验2)考察语篇层级性的韵律表现。结果发现,语篇层级对韵律特征产生显著影响,边界处的无声段和小句高音点随层级的变化而出现正向变化。研究二(实验3)考察语篇层级性对语篇中的局部信息(焦点)韵律表现的影响。结果发现,局部信息的韵律特征也受到语篇的调节,处于高层级的焦点词时长更长,音域更宽。研究三(实验4)考察语篇关系性的韵律特征,即话题转换和话题延续这两种关系对边界声学参数的影响。实验结果表明,语篇中的语义关系显著调节边界处的韵律特征,话题转换后起始音节的高音点和低音点同时抬高。 接着,通过两部分研究分别考察语篇层级性和关系性对理解的影响。研究四(实验5)采用ERP技术,考察语篇不同层级对语篇整合的影响,结果发现,语篇层级是影响整合难度的因素。处于高层级的语篇信息在语义违反时表现为更大的N400效应。研究五(实验6和实验7)考察语篇关系性对理解的影响,采用自控速动窗技术,分别通过阅读理解任务和词汇再认任务考察话题关系不同与加工速度的关系。结果发现,语篇中的话题关系也对语篇的理解加工产生影响,在话题转换条件下,相对于话题延续,目标句需要更多的加工时间;同时,在任务不要求被试认真理解语篇时,话题关系的效应消失。 本文通过五部分研究揭示了语篇的层级性和关系性对产生和理解的影响。在产生过程中,层级性显著的调节人们发音时时长和音高等参数的变化,而关系性则显著调节音高参数的变化。在理解过程中,层级性和关系性的作用主要体现在对认知资源的调节上,高层级的信息或话题转换后的信息在语篇理解过程中得到了更多的认知资源。
其他摘要Linguistic researches posit that discourse has a complex structure consisting of semantic relations and hierarchies, but this construct has remained relatively undefined in phonetic and psycholinguistic studies. In the current thesis, through seven experiments, we investigated the prosodic features and comprehension process of discourse structure from the perspectives of relation and hierarchy. First, we conducted four experiments to investigate the prosodic signaling of hierarchy and relation in Chinese discourse. The first two experiments explored the relationship between prosodic variation and hierarchy structure in discourse. It was found that speakers realized longer pauses and higher f0 max at boundaries of higher hierarchy. Also, we found that the influence of hierarchy on prosodic features was consistent across speakers. In the third experiment, we investigate whether the acoustic features of discourse focus were subjected to the influence of discourse hierarchy. The results revealed that foci embedded higher in the discourse hierarchy had relatively longer duration and more expanded pitch range. In the fourth experiment, we investigated whether topic relation affect the prosodic features of discourse. It was found that compared with topic continuation relation, topic shift relation induced higher f0 max and f0 min. Then, we investigated whether semantic hierarchy and relation played a role in discourse comprehension. In Experiment 5, the role of hierarchy in discourse comprehension was investigated. It was found that target words in the high hierarchy condition elicited a larger N400 effect compared with those in the low hierarchy condition. In Experiment 6, we explored the effect of topic relation in discourse comprehension. It was found that reading times for the target clause were significantly longer in the topic-shift condition relative to the topic-continuation condition. However, in Experiment 7, when the discourse comprehension task was changed to the word recognition task, the effect of topic-shift disappeared. These studies together suggest that relation and hierarchy of discourse affect prosodic features and comprehension process significantly. With regard to prosodic features, hierarchy significantly influences timing and the pitch parameters while relation significantly affects pitch parameters. With regard to comprehension process, both hierarchy and relation affect comprehension process by modulating cognitive resources: information in higher hierarchy or information occurred after topic shift requires more cognitive resources to be processed.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20433
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨晓虹. 汉语语篇层级性和关系性韵律特征和理解加工[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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