|Alternative Title||The Development of Children’s Fair Behavior and its Relationship with Theory of Mind|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||公平行为 独裁者博弈 最后通牒博弈 内团体偏差 心理理论|
|Other Abstract||Fair behavior is an important prosocial behavior which is also the essential aspect of children’s moral development. In the current study, fair behavior either refers to resource allocators’ fair and altruistic behavior or refers to the responders’ rejection behavior to others’ unfair distributions. In the studies of dictator game (DG), there was an inconsistent age trend in children’s fair behavior. The current study claimed that in-group bias (treating members from the same group more fair) might lead to the contradictory results, which would be examined in study one. In the ultimatum game (UG), it was not clear that young responders’ rejection of an unfair allocation was due to unequal outcome or unfair intention, which would be explored in study two. Besides, researchers proposed that theory of mind was required for children to behave fairly. Only two studies so far have provided direct evidence for the proposition but with contradictory results. The current study investigated whether children’s theory of mind was related to proposers’ fair behavior in the dictator game and responders’ rejection behavior in the ultimatum game, which remained inconclusive.|
Participants were 3 to 9 years old preschoolers and school-age children. In study one, two players were good friends from the same class (in-group members) versus strange peers from different schools (out-group members). Standard dictator game (DG) and Mini-DG were conducted to study the children’s fair behavior and in-group bias effect. In study two, four mini-ultimatum games (Mini-UG) were adopted to study young responders’ rejection behavior to unfair offers. Theory of mind of all participants was measured by first-second-order false belief tasks. The correlation between theory of mind and children’s allocation as well as rejection behavior were analyzed.
The main findings are as follows:
1. A significant increase of individual offer in standard DG and frequency of egalitarian choices in Mini-DG indicated that children became more fair and altruistic with age developed. Children showed an in-group bias in DG no later than 5~6 years old. Young children who passed false-belief tasks were more likely to treat others fair and altruistically.
2. School-age children rejected unequal allocation more often than preschoolers.
First-order false-belief understanding could enhance the rejection behavior of 3~4 years old children, while second-order false-belief understanding decreased 5~6 years old children’s rejections to unequal offers. 5~9 years old children could adjust their rejections towards unfair offers based on the proposers’ intentions, but the rejection behavior of 3~4 years old children was independent of intention conditions.
|于静. 儿童公平行为的发展及其与心理理论的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.|
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