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儿童公平行为的发展及其与心理理论的关系
其他题名The Development of Children’s Fair Behavior and its Relationship with Theory of Mind
于静
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2010-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词公平行为 独裁者博弈 最后通牒博弈 内团体偏差 心理理论
摘要公平行为是一种重要的亲社会行为,也是儿童道德发展的重要内容。本研究中公平行为一方面指资源分配者表现出的公平利他行为,另一方面指决策回应者对他人不公平分配的拒绝行为。已有的独裁者博弈(DG)研究发现儿童公平行为的发展趋势不一致。本研究指出内团体偏差(对社会距离较近的团体内成员更公平)效应可能是造成结果不一致的主要原因,研究一将验证这一假设。在最后通牒博弈(UG)中,年幼儿童的拒绝行为是只考虑分配结果还是进一步考虑了分配者的行为意图尚不清楚,研究二将考察这一问题。此外,有研究者指出心理理论能力是个体表现出公平行为的必要条件,但目前只有两项研究为此提供了直接证据且结果有分歧,本研究将重点考察仍需进一步研究的问题:心理理论是否与DG提议者及UG回应者的公平行为相关。研究被试为3~9岁幼儿及学龄早期儿童。研究一设置博弈双方为同班好友(团体内成员)或为不同学校的陌生同学(团体外成员),结合典型与迫选式的独裁者博弈(DG)考察儿童的公平行为是否受内团体偏差的影响。研究二采用简化的最后通牒博弈(Mini-UG)考察儿童对不公平分配的拒绝是基于结果均等还是意图公平。所有被试的心理理论由一级/二级错误信念任务来测量,并将心理理论与个体在博弈中的分配和拒绝行为做相关分析。主要研究结果如下:1.随年龄增长儿童变得更加公平利他,表现为典型DG中个体的分配量随年龄而增加、迫选式DG中选择公平选项的人数百分比逐渐增大。至少从5-6岁开始,儿童的公平行为就表现出内团体偏差。通过错误信念的年幼儿童更可能表现出公平利他行为。2.年长儿童会比幼儿更多地拒绝不公平的分配。通过一级错误信念促使更多的3~4岁儿童表现出拒绝行为,而获得二级错误信念的5~6岁儿童比未通过该任务的同龄儿童的拒绝行为更少。5~9岁儿童对不公平分配的拒绝相对充分地考虑了对方的意图,而3~4岁儿童的拒绝行为只受分配结果而不受意图条件的影响。
其他摘要Fair behavior is an important prosocial behavior which is also the essential aspect of children’s moral development. In the current study, fair behavior either refers to resource allocators’ fair and altruistic behavior or refers to the responders’ rejection behavior to others’ unfair distributions. In the studies of dictator game (DG), there was an inconsistent age trend in children’s fair behavior. The current study claimed that in-group bias (treating members from the same group more fair) might lead to the contradictory results, which would be examined in study one. In the ultimatum game (UG), it was not clear that young responders’ rejection of an unfair allocation was due to unequal outcome or unfair intention, which would be explored in study two. Besides, researchers proposed that theory of mind was required for children to behave fairly. Only two studies so far have provided direct evidence for the proposition but with contradictory results. The current study investigated whether children’s theory of mind was related to proposers’ fair behavior in the dictator game and responders’ rejection behavior in the ultimatum game, which remained inconclusive.
Participants were 3 to 9 years old preschoolers and school-age children. In study one, two players were good friends from the same class (in-group members) versus strange peers from different schools (out-group members). Standard dictator game (DG) and Mini-DG were conducted to study the children’s fair behavior and in-group bias effect. In study two, four mini-ultimatum games (Mini-UG) were adopted to study young responders’ rejection behavior to unfair offers. Theory of mind of all participants was measured by first-second-order false belief tasks. The correlation between theory of mind and children’s allocation as well as rejection behavior were analyzed.
The main findings are as follows:
1. A significant increase of individual offer in standard DG and frequency of egalitarian choices in Mini-DG indicated that children became more fair and altruistic with age developed. Children showed an in-group bias in DG no later than 5~6 years old. Young children who passed false-belief tasks were more likely to treat others fair and altruistically.
2. School-age children rejected unequal allocation more often than preschoolers.
First-order false-belief understanding could enhance the rejection behavior of 3~4 years old children, while second-order false-belief understanding decreased 5~6 years old children’s rejections to unequal offers. 5~9 years old children could adjust their rejections towards unfair offers based on the proposers’ intentions, but the rejection behavior of 3~4 years old children was independent of intention conditions.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20439
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
于静. 儿童公平行为的发展及其与心理理论的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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