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刻板印象对社会困境中合作决策的影响
其他题名The Effects of Stereotypes on Cooperative Decision Making in Social Dilemmas
翟成蹊
学位类型硕士
导师李岩梅
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词刻板印象内容模型 能力 热情 合作
摘要以刻板印象内容模型(stereotype content model, SCM)为代表的研究提出,能力和热情决定外群体的分布,依靠能力和热情这两个基准维度,可以形成刻板印象的4个组合类别:高能力-高热情群体(high-competence and high-warmth, 简称HC-HW)、低能力-高热情群体(low-competence but high-warmth, 简称LC-HW)、高能力-低热情群体(High Competence but Low Warmth, 简称HC-LW)和低能力-低热情群体(low-competence and low-warmth, 简称LC-LW)。 本研究根据SCM,探讨了刻板印象的能力、热情维度,以及依据能力、热情维度划分的4类刻板印象,对社会困境中合作决策的影响,同时我们还检验了刻板印象的能力、热情维度对不同社会价值取向者是否会产生不同的影响。 我们采用的是单次的囚徒困境游戏(one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma Game,PDG)来作为研究社会困境的范式。在研究一中,我们首先通过预实验,选取出对应于SCM所划分的4类刻板印象的8个国家群体;然后,在正式实验中,我们再探讨,面对这4类国家群体的对手时,刻板印象对被试的合作决策的影响;在研究二中,我们首先通过能力、热情维度信息的不同高低组合,构建出对应于SCM所划分的4类刻板印象的4个虚拟群体(名字都叫“R协会”),然后再探讨,面对这4类虚拟群体的成员(R协会的成员)时,刻板印象对被试的合作决策的影响。结果发现: (1)刻板印象的热情维度对合作决策有预测作用,即,与低热情群体的对手相比,面对高热情群体的对手时,被试在社会困境中更有可能选择合作;热情维度的这种预测作用对于亲社会者和亲自我者的同样有效。 (2)刻板印象的热情维度对合作决策的影响大小受到能力维度的调节,即,与高能力群体的对手相比,在面对低能力群体的对手时,热情维度的高低对合作决策的影响更大。 (3)刻板印象的能力维度对合作决策的影响,同时受到热情维度的高低以及被试自身社会价值取向的调节,只有在亲社会者面对高热情群体的对手时,刻板印象的能力维度才可能预测合作决策,即,与高能力-高热情群体的对手相比,面对低能力-高热情群体的对手时,亲社会者更有可能选择合作,在其他的情况下,能力维度对合作决策都没有预测作用。
其他摘要Stereotype Content Model(SCM) proposed that perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes. From these locations defined by stereotypic high versus low warmth and competence, the SCM identifies four resulting categories of stereotypes: high-competence and high-warmth, low-competence but high-warmth, High Competence but Low Warmth, low-competence and low-warmth. Based on SCM,we first investigated how warmth and competence dimension of partner’s group stereotypes influence participants’ own cooperation in social dilemmas with the experimental paradigm of one-shot Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. We also examined whether the effects of warmth and competence were moderated by participants’ own social value orientation. In Study 1, we manipulated the national stereotypes of the four different categories. In Study 2, we manipulated one fictitious group’s stereotypes of the four different categories by 4 competence-warmth combinations The main conclusions are as follows: (a) the warmth dimension of partner’s group stereotypes could predict participants’ cooperative decision making in a social dilemma, that is, participants cooperate more when group stereotypes suggest that partner is warm rather than cold; the effects of warmth on cooperative decision making were both significant for pro-socials and pro-selfs. (b) the effect size of warmth on cooperative decision making were moderated by the competence dimension of partner’s group stereotypes, that is, the effects of warmth on cooperative decision making were more pronounced within the low-competence condition than they were within the high-competence condition. (c) the effects of competence on cooperative decision making were moderated by both competence and social value orientation; for pro-socials, only within the high-warmth condition, the effect of competence on cooperative decision making were significant, that is, pro-socials cooperate more when group stereotypes suggest that partner is low-competence but high-warmth rather than high-competence and high-warmth; within in other conditions, none of the effects of competence were significant.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20443
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
翟成蹊. 刻板印象对社会困境中合作决策的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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