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地标在运动距离知觉和路径整合中的作用
Alternative TitleThe Effect of Landmarks on Locomotion Distance Estimation and Path Integration
张慧婷
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor张侃
2012-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword地标 纹理 距离知觉 静态场景信息 路径整合
Abstract地标在大尺度巡航中是非常有效的空间线索,然而,它们在小尺度的距离估计中的作用目前还没有得到充分的探讨。在运动过程中,人们加工和利用视觉线索的机制也不同于在静止条件下对自我中心距离的判断过程。因此,对于地标在小尺度运动空间认知的作用这个问题上的探讨是具有理论价值和实际意义的。通过在虚拟现实中学习和重复运动距离,研究一发现了不同的视觉环境对人们利用运动过程中时空信息的策略具有调控作用。研究二通过静态帧范式分离动态视觉信息和静态场景信息,并对比两者的作用,发现地标在仅有静态信息的条件下也能帮助人们判断运动过程中的距离。研究三试图将这个结论拓展到更复杂的巡航过程也就是路径整合过程中,发现单独的视觉线索在路径整合过程的作用具有局限性。综合七个实验,本研究主要得到了以下结论: 1)地标在对运动距离进行估计的过程中具有一定的优势,但这种优势受到场景新异性的调控;2)视觉环境对人们利用运动过程中的时空信息的策略具有调控作用,当环境中视觉线索丰富的时候,人们可以直接知觉空间距离,而当环境中视觉线索不充分的时候,人们会通过时间知觉在重复距离;3)地标的优势主要体现在,当运动中的动态视觉线索被消除之后,人们仍然能够通过地标提供的静态场景信息来判断距离,而纹理信息则不能提供有效的静态信息;4)当只有视觉线索的时候,即使环境中视觉信息非常丰富,人们在对路径进行知觉的过程中仍然表现出很大的偏差,从而也说明身体感觉在准确执行路径整合过程中是不可缺少的。以上发现揭示了地标在小尺度巡航中的作用和特点,探讨了地标优势效应的作用机制。本研究的主要贡献在于:首次在运动过程中发现了静态视觉信息的作用,验证了运动知觉中静态场景机制的有效性;并且通过分离时空信息在反应判断中的贡献证实了视觉场景对反应策略的调控。 
Other AbstractIn large-scale navigation, landmarks are useful spatial cues. However, their effect on small-scale navigation, such as distance perception and path integration, has not been fully explored. In addition, the mechanism on searching and processing the visual information during locomotion is different from that on egocentric distance judgment in a static scene. Therefore, it is a significant research question in terms of theoretical contribution and practical values to further investigate the effect of landmarks. In Research 1, participants were asked to learn and reproduce the locomotive distance through simulated self-movements in virtual reality. The results showed the type of the visual environments mediated the strategy participants used in distance reproduction. In Research 2, a static-frame paradigm was used to separate the static scenes from the motion cues during simulated self-movements. By comparing the effect of these two kinds of information, landmarks were proved to be effective when motion cues were removed and the effect of this static mechanism functioned as well as the motion-based mechanism. Research 3 was aimed to extend the findings in distance estimation to the process of path integration. However, the current results only revealed potential advantage of landmarks on visual path integration. In sum, the main findings of all seven experiments are as follows: 1) landmarks as visual cues are effective on locomotion distance perception, however, this effect is mediated by the novelty of the environment; 2) the type of the visual environments mediated the strategy participants used in distance reproduction: when the visual information is sufficient, participants can perceive the real spatial distance, while when the visual cues are rare, they are also able to reproduce the distance according to traveling time; 3) the advantage of landmarks is that when motion cues were removed, people are still able to estimate the distance through a series of static scenes; 4) when only visual information is provided, even with redundant visual cues, people still showed large biased on path integration which confirmed the necessity of the body sense when processing the path integration. Taken together, the current study found out the effect and feature of landmarks on small-scale navigation, and explored the mechanism of processing landmarks on locomotion spatial perception. The main contributions are: the static-frame paradigm was first developed and used to prove the effect of static scene mechanism which was also the base of the advantage of landmarks as visual cues; the spatiotemporal information was separated by regression analysis and the mediated effect of visual environment type was found on the strategy used to reproduce the distance. 
Subject Area应用心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20446
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张慧婷. 地标在运动距离知觉和路径整合中的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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