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相对剥夺对集群行为的影响:群体认同和触发事件的调节作用
其他题名The Effect of Relative Deprivation on Collective Action:Group Identity and Incident Context as Moderators
张书维
学位类型博士
导师王二平
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词相对剥夺 群体认同 触发事件 集群行为
摘要群体性事件是部分群众与行政当局或强势社会集团的对抗性冲突。它是集群行为在当下中国的典型表现形式。相对剥夺作为集群行为的前提和结构性因素,可分为个体相对剥夺和群体相对剥夺。群体相对剥夺与集群行为的联系尤其密切。本研究将社会心理学研究方法运用到公共管理领域对群体性事件的研究中,通过现场(问卷)调查、实验室情景设计和实验室模拟实验三种研究方法,考察了群体相对剥夺如何通过群体认同和触发事件作用于集群行为,在此基础上进一步探究了群体愤怒和群体效能对集群行为的影响,得到如下结论: 第一,相对剥夺的个体比相对满意的个体更有可能参与集群行为。且高群体相对剥夺的个体比低群体相对剥夺的个体更愿意参与集群行为。 第二,群体认同调节群体相对剥夺-集群行为(意向)之间的关系。一方面,一般群体认同凸显的个体在高群体相对剥夺水平下有更强烈的集群行为参与(意向)。这源自群体认同对群体相对剥夺不同水平下群体效能与集群行为意向之间的调节:高群体相对剥夺水平下,一般群体认同凸显的个体受高群体效能的动员,更愿意参与集群行为。另一方面,对于特殊群体认同凸显的个体,无论群体相对剥夺水平的高低,都有较高的集群行为参与(意向)。这当中,群体愤怒起到了部分中介的作用。 第三,触发事件调节群体认同不同水平下群体相对剥夺与集群行为意向的关系。具体而言,对于利益无关事件,群体认同调节群体相对剥夺与集群行为意向的关系:一般群体认同凸显的个体在高群体相对剥夺条件下比低群体相对剥夺条件下有更高的集群行为参与意向;对于利益相关事件,无论凸显何种认同,高群体相对剥夺水平的个体始终比低群体相对剥夺水平的个体更倾向参与集群行为,但差异不显著。触发事件对集群行为心理机制的作用还体现在群体愤怒与群体效能对集群行为意向的影响在不同触发事件情境下有区别:在利益无关事件中,群体愤怒的影响显著大于群体效能;在利益相关事件中,群体效能与群体愤怒的影响无显著差异。 本研究的意义和贡献体现在以下三个方面:理论层面,将群体认同和触发事件先后纳入群体相对剥夺对集群行为(意向)结果变量作用的模型中,检验并比较了在中国本土情境下,群体认同和触发事件的调节效应。进一步探究了群体愤怒和群体效能对该调节效应的作用,扩展了集群行为双路径模型。方法层面,采用实验室操纵群体相对剥夺水平来探究个体面对不同群体困境时的反应,所得结果弥补了已有关于相对剥夺的研究多问卷测量少实验操纵的不足。且首次尝试在实验室研究中通过操纵触发事件这一情境变量来探究不同触发事件下集群行为的心理机制可能存在的差异,为后续相关研究提供了实验范式上的参考。应用层面,将集群行为领域的社会心理研究与群体性事件动力学机制的探讨相结合,为公共管理提供了实证研究的支持,从而为政府早期预防和化解此类事件提供思路。
其他摘要Mass incidents, as representation of social conflicts, refer to the conflicts between certain public and local administrations. They are typical collective action (CA) in China. A group member engages in CA any time that he or she acts as a representative of the group and where the action is directed at improving the conditions of the group as a whole. Relative deprivation (RD), as a predictor and structural factor of CA, is divided into individual relative deprivation (IRD) and group relative deprivation (GRD). The relation between GRD and CA is stronger than that between IRD and CA. This study applies the social psychology approaches to the public administration and focuses on the topic of mass incidents by using field survey, scenario and experiment. It investigates the moderating roles of group identity (GI) and incident context in the relationship between GRD and CA, and also explores the effects of group-based anger (GA) and group efficacy (GE) on CA. The results indicated that: First, Individuals in the RD conditionwere more likely to engage in CA thanthose in the relative gratification condition. Moreover, comparing to the Individuals with low level of GRD, those who have high level of GRD were more likely to engage in CA. Second, GI moderated the relation between GRD and CA (or CA intention, CAI). Specifically, when general GI (GGI) was salient, individuals with high GRD were more likely to participate in CA because GI moderated the relation between GE and CAI at different levels of GRD. That is, in the high GRD condition, when GGI was salient, the participants’ CAI increased as their GE increased; while in the low GRD condition, GI did not have the moderating effect. Whereas when special GI (SGI) was salient, the participants were very likely to engage in CA/CAI despite the GRD levels. In this process, GA partly mediated the moderating effect of GI on GRD-CAI relationship. . Third, incident context moderated the relation between GRD and CAI at different GI levels. Specifically, in the non-instrumental incident context, when GGI was salient, the participants’ CAI could be better predicted by GRD; whereas in the instrumental incident context, the participants with high level of GRD were more likely to engage in CA than those with low level of GRD, though there were no significant differences between them. In addition, the effect of GA on CAI was significantly stronger than GE in the non-instrumental incident context. However, there were no significant differences between the effects of GA and GE on CAI in the instrumental incident context. A key theoretical implication of this study was that it expanded the two-path way model of CA to different incident context at different levels of GRD. Meanwhile, incident context were successfully manipulated in the lab in this study, which provided reference on experimental paradigm.. The practical implication of this study was that the social psychology mechanism of CA and the motivations of Chinese Mass Incidents were combined; therefore, it provided empirical support for public management. It was also useful in monitoring and solving Mass Incidents
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20452
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张书维. 相对剥夺对集群行为的影响:群体认同和触发事件的调节作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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