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Beyond the 'East-West' Dichotomy: Global Variation in Cultural Models of Selfhood
Vignoles, Vivian L.1; Owe, Ellinor1; Becker, Maja2; Smith, Peter B.1; Easterbrook, Matthew J.1; Brown, Rupert1; Gonzalez, Roberto3; Didier, Nicolas3; Carrasco, Diego3,54; Paz Cadena, Maria3; Lay, Siugmin3; Schwartz, Seth J.4; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.5; Villamar, Juan A.6; Gavreliuc, Alin7; Zinkeng, Martina8; Kreuzbauer, Robert9,10; Baguma, Peter11; Martin, Mariana12; Tatarko, Alexander13; Herman, Ginette14; de Sauvage, Isabelle14; Courtois, Marie14; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B.15; Harb, Charles16; Schweiger Gallo, Inge17; Prieto Gil, Paula17; Lorente Clemares, Raquel17; Campara, Gabriella17; Nizharadze, George18; Macapagal, Ma. Elizabeth J.19; Jalal, Baland20; Bourguignon, David21; Zhang, Jianxin22; Lv, Shaobo23; Chybicka, Aneta24; Yuki, Masaki25; Zhang, Xiao26; Espinosa, Agustin27; Valk, Aune28; Abuhamdeh, Sami29; Amponsah, Benjamin30; Ozgen, Emre31; Guner, E. Ulku32; Yamakoglu, Nil32; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit33; Pyszczynski, Tom34; Kesebir, Pelin35; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas36; Balanta, Paola36; Ayala, Boris Cendales36; Koller, Silvia H.37; Jaafar, Jas Laile38; Gausel, Nicolay39; Fischer, Ronald40,55,56; Milfont, Taciano L.40; Kusdil, Ersin41; Caglar, Selinay42; Aldhafri, Said43; Ferreira, M. Cristina44; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu45; Wang, Qian46; Fulop, Marta47; Torres, Ana48; Camino, Leoncio48; Silveira Lemos, Flavia Cristina49; Fritsche, Immo50; Moeller, Bettina51; Regalia, Camillo52; Manzi, Claudia52; Brambilla, Maria52; Bond, Michael Harris53
AbstractMarkus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts.
Keywordculture independence-interdependence self-construals
Indexed BySSCI
Funding OrganizationEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC, United Kingdom)(RES-062-23-1300) ; ESRC(ES/G015074/1) ; Interdisciplinary Center for Social Conflict and Cohesion Studies: COES(FONDAP/15130009)
WOS Research AreaPsychology
WOS SubjectPsychology, Experimental
WOS IDWOS:000381392400005
WOS HeadingsSocial Sciences
Citation statistics
Cited Times:70[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorVignoles, Vivian L.
Affiliation1.Univ Sussex, Sch Psychol, Brighton BN1 9QH, E Sussex, England
2.Univ Toulouse, CLLE, Toulouse, France
3.Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Sch Psychol, Santiago, Chile
4.Univ Miami, Leonard M Miller Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Coral Gables, FL 33124 USA
5.Barry Univ, Dept Psychol, Miami, FL 33161 USA
6.Northwestern Univ, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Evanston, IL 60208 USA
7.West Univ Timisoara, Dept Psychol, Timisoara, Romania
8.Univ Buea, Dept Guidance & Counselling, Buea, Cameroon
9.Nanyang Technol Univ, Nanyang Business Sch, Dept Mkt & Int Business, Singapore 639798, Singapore
10.Nanyang Technol Univ, Nanyang Business Sch, Inst Asian Consumer Insight, Singapore 639798, Singapore
11.Makerere Univ, Sch Psychol, Dept Educ Social & Org Psychol, Kampala, Uganda
12.Univ Namibia, Dept Human Sci, Windhoek, Namibia
13.Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Dept Psychol, Ranchi, Bihar, India
14.Catholic Univ Louvain, Psychol Sci Res Inst, Louvain, Belgium
15.Univ Iceland, Dept Psychol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland
16.Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Psychol, Beirut, Lebanon
17.Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Psicol Social, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
18.Free Univ Tbilisi, Dept Social Sci, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia
19.Ateneo Manila Univ, Dept Psychol, Quezon City, Philippines
20.Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England
21.Lorraine Univ, Equipe PErSEUs EA 7312, Nancy, France
22.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Psychol, Beijing 100864, Peoples R China
23.North China Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Psychol, Tangshan, Peoples R China
24.Univ Gdansk, Inst Psychol, PL-80952 Gdansk, Poland
25.Hokkaido Univ, Ctr Expt Res Social Sci, Dept Behav Sci, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060, Japan
26.Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Human Sci, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan
27.Pontificia Univ Catolica Peru, Dept Psychol, Lima, Peru
28.Univ Tartu, Inst Psychol, Tartu, Estonia
29.Istanbul Sehir Univ, Dept Psychol, Istanbul, Turkey
30.Univ Ghana, Dept Psychol, Accra, Ghana
31.Yasar Univ, Dept Psychol, Izmir, Turkey
32.Bilkent Univ, Dept Psychol, Ankara, Turkey
33.Thammasat Univ, Dept Psychol Lib Sci & Geog, Div Psychol, Bangkok, Thailand
34.Univ Colorado, Dept Psychol, Colorado Springs, CO 80933 USA
35.Univ Wisconsin, Ctr Hlth Minds, Madison, WI 53705 USA
36.Univ Los Andes, Dept Psychol, Santiago, Chile
37.Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Dept Psychol, BR-90046900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
38.Univ Malaya, Dept Educ Psychol & Counseling, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
39.Univ Agder, Dept Psychosocial Hlth, Kristiansand, Norway
40.Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Psychol, Ctr Appl Cross Cultural Res, Wellington, New Zealand
41.Uludag Univ, Dept Psychol, Bursa, Turkey
42.Ankara Univ, Dept Psychol, TR-06100 Ankara, Turkey
43.Sultan Qaboos Univ, Dept Psychol, Muscat, Oman
44.Univ Salgado de Oliveira, Dept Psychol, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil
45.Univ Addis Ababa, Sch Psychol, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
46.Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Psychol, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
47.Hungarian Acad Sci, Inst Cognit Neurosci & Psychol, H-1051 Budapest, Hungary
48.Univ Fed Paraiba, Dept Psychol, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil
49.Fed Univ Para, Dept Psychol, BR-66059 Belem, Para, Brazil
50.Univ Leipzig, Inst Psychol, D-04109 Leipzig, Germany
51.Univ Jena, Inst Psychol, Jena, Germany
52.Catholic Univ Milan, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy
53.Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Fac Business, Dept Management & Mkt, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
54.Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Ctr Med MIDE UC, Santiago, Chile
55.Aarhus Univ, Aarhus Inst Adv Studies, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
56.Aarhus Univ, Interacting Minds Ctr, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Vignoles, Vivian L.,Owe, Ellinor,Becker, Maja,et al. Beyond the 'East-West' Dichotomy: Global Variation in Cultural Models of Selfhood[J]. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL,2016,145(8):966-1000.
APA Vignoles, Vivian L..,Owe, Ellinor.,Becker, Maja.,Smith, Peter B..,Easterbrook, Matthew J..,...&Bond, Michael Harris.(2016).Beyond the 'East-West' Dichotomy: Global Variation in Cultural Models of Selfhood.JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL,145(8),966-1000.
MLA Vignoles, Vivian L.,et al."Beyond the 'East-West' Dichotomy: Global Variation in Cultural Models of Selfhood".JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL 145.8(2016):966-1000.
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