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基于“值”的选择及其内在机制:来自行为、眼动、fMRI的研究
其他题名Worth-based Choice and Its Underlying Mechanism:Results from Behavioral, Eye Movement and fMRI Studies
郑昱
学位类型博士
导师李纾
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词基于值的选择 内在机制 眼动 Fmri
摘要面对不同的选项该如何做出选择?经典决策理论认为应基于价值最大化(Value Maximization, VM)的原则做决策:每个选项χ,被赋予一个价值即v(χ),根据给出的属性或维度,决策者会选择有最高价值的那个选项。基于价值的选择其优点是分析较严密,且数量化的价值较易于比较,但缺点是较难应用于真实复杂世界中的决策。因此,研究者们提出各种更具生态效度的决策机制,从不同角度来研究人们面对不同选项时的决策过程。 本研究结合相关文献,在对基于价值的选择和其他决策机制分析的基础上,创新性的提出“值”的概念来解释人们在现实情境中所做的表面有损失的决策。本研究界定v(χ)代表决策者对表面已给出的选项的属性或维度所分配的“价值”,界定χc为每一个选项表面没有给出而是由决策者自己生成的潜在属性或维度,是决策者在看到选项表面给出的属性或维度之后所生成的属性或维度,决策者最终所选择的是最高“值”超过最高“价值”的选项。本研究的目的是验证“基于值的选择”这种决策机制是否存在,以及验证这种决策机制能否用来解释一些违反VM原则的决策,并试图探讨基于值的选择的内在机制。本研究通过三个有关联的子研究从行为、认知、神经机制方面系统地证实这一设想。研究一通过对比父母和其孩子在面对相同选择任务时的差异来检验是否存在违反VM的决策行为,然后借鉴询问理论的思路与方法来探究是何原因使成人选择更小价值的选项,再运用齐当别模型的方法研究影响决策者最终做出基于值的选择的因素,在更多社会情境中检验基于值的选择之后,使用本研究开发的值的量表在现实情境中检验其生态效度。研究二在研究一齐当别判别任务实验所得结论的基础上,使用眼动技术探究基于值的选择的认知过程:决策者在做出基于值的选择时是否更关注选项的非金钱维度。研究三使用fMRI方法初步探究基于值的选择的神经机制。
其他摘要How do you make a choice among various options? In classical decision theory, choices among options are guided by a principle of value maximization (VM): each option χ, is assigned a value, v(χ), such that the decision maker selects the option with the highest value given an offered set of attributes or dimensions. The advantages of value-based choice are refined analysis and comparison easily. The main shortcoming of value-based choice is not appropriate to apply to the real world. Thus, researchers had designed various decision mechanisms with ecological validity from different perspectives. By summarizing these studies, we found the mechanisms underlying a choice that suffers an offered loss remain largely undefined. To address this gap in understanding, we propse and demonstrate a so-called “worth-based choice” approach to explain and predict choices that result in an apparent loss. In the present study, we define v(χ) as the “value” that is assigned by the decision maker on the offered set of attributes or dimensions. More importantly, we define χc as a set of attributes or dimensions that is not offered in each option but produced afterward by the decision maker. We also define w(χc) as the delayed “worth”, which is assigned by the decision maker on the set of attributes or dimensions that is not offered but again produced afterward by the decision maker. The decision maker selects the option with the highest “worth” rather than the highest “value”. The aim of this study is to examine whether worth-based choice exists, whether the “worth” can constitute an explanation for the possible violation of the principle of VM and its underlined mechanism. Results of three studies from behavioral, cognition and neural mechanism perspectives confirmed our hypothesis. In Study 1, we first compared the decisions of children with those of their parents to explore who practiced the principle of value maximization. Then, we tried to answer the question what makes adults choose the option with the smaller value by using Query Theory. Next, we used equate-to-differentiate model to explore how individual made a final choice. And then, we seek to examine whether the worth-based choice can account for the choice that suffers an offered loss if the underling dimension is extended to more complex social contexts. At the end of study 1, we developed a worth-proneness scale to examine ecological validity in a field study. In study 2, based on the equate-to-differentiate model, we seek to examine the cognition mechanism of worth-based choice by using an eye movement system. In study 3, we consider the neural basis of worth-based choice. 
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20480
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郑昱. 基于“值”的选择及其内在机制:来自行为、眼动、fMRI的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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