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记忆提取中的负性新旧效应:老化及训练效应
其他题名记忆提取中的负性新旧效应:老化及训练效应
周婷
学位类型博士
导师李娟
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词负性新-旧效应 情节记忆 情节提取 老化效应 记忆训练
摘要新-旧效应(New/old effect)是与记忆提取相联系的ERP(Event-related potential, 事件相关电位)效应,它包含多个时程、分布、及功能意义独立的子效应。经典的新-旧效应通常是指正确提取的旧项目(学习过的项目)比正确否定的新项目(未学习过的项目)诱发更正走向的ERPs。但也有研究者报告了一种与经典新-旧效应方向相反的负性新-旧效应,即新项目比旧项目诱发更正走向的ERPs。负性新-旧效应所代表的功能意义或反映的加工过程,是目前记忆提取的ERP研究领域中仍需深入挖掘的课题,且其老化研究更是少之又少。 本研究采用ERP技术系统地比较了在多种记忆任务(直接再认项目记忆、间接重复项目记忆、来源记忆)中,老年人和青年人的负性新-旧效应。然后以来源记忆任务中的负性新-旧效应为前、后测指标,考察了记忆策略训练(如:面孔-人名记忆术,位置法记忆术等)在神经层面上对老年人记忆功能的影响。 本研究得到的主要结果是:内隐项目记忆和来源记忆任务均能诱发负性新-旧效应;相对于行为成绩与老年人匹配的青年组,老年组在内隐项目记忆中的负性新-旧效应消失,在来源记忆中的负性新-旧效应增大。经过记忆训练后,老年人的负性新-旧效应进一步增大。负性新-旧效应反映了对知觉信息的搜索和/或激活。老年人的负性新-旧效应增大代表了老年人更多地使用基于对知觉信息的搜索和激活进行来源提取的浅层加工策略。这种加工策略是一种补偿机制。记忆策略训练可以有效提高老年人的情节提取成绩,但未从根本上改变其利用表象进行浅层提取的加工策略,而是促进了原有的补偿机制或策略的使用。在直接再认项目记忆中两个被试组均未观察到负性新-旧效应。可能原因之一是该实验设置诱发了与负性新-旧效应方向相反而时程重合的正性负性新-旧效应。
其他摘要In the case of event-related potentials (ERPs), numerous studies have demonstrated that correctly identified old (studied) items elicit waveforms that are more positive-going than the ERPs elicited by correctly rejected new (unstudied) items. This ‘old/new ERP effects’ were identified as the neural correlates of episodic retrieval and have been fractionated into several temporally, topographically and functionally distinct sub-effects. There were also studies reporting a negative ‘old/new effect’—more positive-going waveforms elected by correctly judged new items than old items. This negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ remains a subject of much disagreement and less is known about the influence of aging on this effect. The present research compared the negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ between the young adults and healthy older adults in multiple memory tasks, including item memory (direct recognition, indirect repetition) and source memory tasks. Then, the negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ associated with source memory was selected as the outcome measure both in pre-test and post-test to examine the neural effect of memory training on episodic retrieval. According to our results, the negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ was observed in the young adults in both item memory (indirect repetition) and source memory tasks. Compared with the young adults, the negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ of the older adults disappeared in the item memory task and increased in the source memory task. This effect was increased further in left prefrontal scalp site after 16 sessions of memory training. Based on these observations, we proposed that the negative ‘old/new ERP effect’ reflected the search and/or activation of sensory-based information. The increased magnitude of this effect in older adult implied their reliance on the search and/or activation of sensory-based information in retrieving source information, in order to optimize their retrieval performance. The healthy older adults indeed benefited from memory training and they might stably use their retrieval strategy to optimize their performance even after memory training. Cognitive training in older adults might operate to enhance the brain’s functioning by promoting the old adults’ compensation process/strategy. Note that we did not observe expected effect in direct recognition item memory task, which might be attribute to the task design.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20546
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周婷. 记忆提取中的负性新旧效应:老化及训练效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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