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团队过程对团队运作的影响:共享心智模型和作业类型的调节作用
其他题名Interactive Effects of Team Processes and Shared Mental Models on Performance with the Influence of Team Shared Leadership
周莹
学位类型博士
导师王二平
2008-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词团队过程 共享团队领导 团队绩效 共享团队领导\ 团队协作类型社会网络分析法
摘要随着科技日趋复杂,企业或组织环境变化越来越快,企业和组织管理者越来越多地应用精干地团队,以克服"航空母舰"似的组织结构和决策流程对快速反应的制约。团队研究者提出IMOI模型作为IPO理论的补充来探索高效能团队的影响因素及其之间的关系,团队过程是团队有效性最直接的风向标,团队过程体现出了团队互动的功能,具有行为性的特点;而它与共享心智模型-认知性变量共同作用于团队有效性;领导的影响不仅在传统组织中,在团队中依然是绩效的关键因素,而领导在团队中可以是分布式的或共享的,这也是为什么传统的组织领导理论不完全适用于团队的缘由。所以本研究采用模拟团队考察团队过程对团队绩效作用中与共享心智模型的交互作用,并初步探讨了团队共享领导对团队过程及绩效的影响。研究一采用关键事件技术和焦点小组访谈法,根据Bemardin和Beatty(1984)的流程,编制量化团队过程的行为锚定量表;研究二采用被试内实验设计。实验室模拟工程项目管理团队,通过对50个三人团队的重复测量,深入探析两阶段(过渡阶段和行动阶段)的团队过程对团队绩效的作用,同时考察共享心智模型两部分(作业模型和团队互动模型)对其的调节效应。结果发现团队成员的共享心智模型相似性会随团队运作而不断增加;过渡阶段的团队互动有助于塑造团队运作各片段的功能实现;团队互动模型在过渡阶段与下一阶段的行动阶段之间起正性调节作用;团队互动模型在团队过程与团队绩效的关系中起显著的正向调节作用;研究三采用单因素被试间实验设计,实验设置三种水平的团队协作类型(继行协作、汇聚协作和协同协作),以校园应急事件管理团队决策任务,在22个三人团队进行了团队决策任务,用社会网络分析法考察共享团队领导(指导型、变革型和授权型行为)对团队过程和绩效的影响。结果表明队友之间相互指导得越频繁则行动阶段的互动越差;指导型领导的效应是负面的,而变革型和授权型领导的效应是积极的;过渡阶段是团队绩效的有效预测源。
其他摘要With the increasing complexity of science and technology, organizations have to make rapid changes. As a result, more and more enterprises apply the structure of team to overcome the limitations from “aircraft carrier” structure. The author examined the moderating effects of Shared Mental Models (SMMs) on the relationship between Team Processes and Team Performance using simulated teams and explored the effects of functional team leadership on those relationships. Study 1 developed Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARs)  of team processes with Critical Incident Technique and Focus  Group Interview based on the procedure outlined by Bernardin and Beatty (1984). Study 2 investigated the moderating effects of SMMs (shared taskwork models and shared teamwork models) on the relationship among episodic team processes (transition and action processes) and performance. 50 three-person teams participated in the experiment and played a simulated construction project planning program. Shared taskwork MM was assessed using individual ratings of the relatedness among critical task concepts. Shared teamwork MM was assessed in a manner more similar to that used previously by Webber (2002). Team Processes were audiotaped and rated twice by highly  trained SMEs with the anchored rating scale developed in study 1. Team performance was computed with the project cost.
Result indicated that the contributions of  team processes to team performance were significantly moderated by the convergence of shared teamwork mental models. For example, team performance would be improved more by team processes which owes to the more similar teamwork mental  models, whereas the planning and mission analyses will not compensate for the deficiency of team interaction with diverse teamwork mental models. Study 3 contrasted teams with 3-level team task type (sequential, convergent and orchestral) in terms of the  effects of functional team leadership on team processes and team performance applying social network analysis (SNA). 22 three-person teams participated in the experiment and played a simulated emergency incident management. Functional team leadership was measured with social network paradigm. Team processes was self-reported with the questionnaire developed by Lerner(2003) and team performance was measured with the survey from Van Der Vegt (1999). Results revealed that directed leadership will weaken the interaction in action processes. Transformational leadership and delegating leadership have positive effects. Transition processes are effective indicators of team performance. However, there is not significant main effect of task type. 
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20547
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周莹. 团队过程对团队运作的影响:共享心智模型和作业类型的调节作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2008.
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