|Alternative Title||Research on self-control development of children aged 3-9 and its correlation on Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||自我控制 注意缺陷多动障碍 儿童|
双系统理论认为自我控制表现是冲动系统和自我控制系统共同作用的结果。3-9岁是儿童自我控制发展的关键时间，以往对于3-9岁儿童自我控制的研究往往着重于认知表征，情绪调节等因素对自我控制的影响，而忽视了冲动系统与自我控制系统的交互作用。除此之外，自我控制与儿童注意缺陷多动症状(ADHD)被广泛地认为存在一定关系。近来有研究指出，3-9岁年龄段儿童的注意缺陷多动症状中核心的损伤是自我控制的不足。自我控制双系统模型中，对于自我控制系统的调控功能与儿童注意力缺陷的相关关系尚未得到充分的研究。注意缺陷多动障碍是儿童期最常见的神经行为障碍，而在以往的研究中，较少涉及3-9岁年龄段儿童的研究。本研究旨在以自我控制的双系统模型为框架，对3-9岁儿童自我控制发展特点进行探索，并考察不同年龄儿童自我控制与注意缺陷多动症状之间的相关关系。 选取宁夏、安徽、山西、四川、福建、吉林全国这6个省市的幼儿园及小学为3-9岁的儿童，及其抚养人(主要为父母)，以性别、年级（幼儿园小班-小学三年级）和区域（城镇和农村）作为分层变量，采用分层抽样技术抽取儿童1390名，其中男童688名，女童702名。以6岁为界，将儿童分为学龄前组与学龄后组，学龄前组（3-6岁）635人，学龄后组（7-9岁）755人。运用儿童自我控制双系统量表（DSSCSC）测查儿童自我控制特质和冲动特质两个维度；运用注意缺陷多动障碍诊断量表父母版（ADHD-RS-IV）评估儿童注意缺陷、多动冲动的程度。研究一结果表明：在年龄上，3-9岁儿童自我控制系统与冲动系统的发展上具有不同步性，自我控制系统的迅速发展期在7-9岁，而冲动系统则缺乏一个明显的迅速发展期。学龄后儿童的自我控制性显著高于学龄前儿童。在性别上，3-9岁女童的自我控制性比男童要高。在性别差异上，自我控制的总分是女童高于男童。其中，自我控制因子随着年龄增长性别差异逐渐降低，7岁以前女童的自我控制因子得分显著高于男童，7岁以后差异变得不明显。但是冲动因子的性别差异没有随着年龄的增长而变化，一直是男童高于女童。研究二结果表明：相关分析显示，自我控制因子与注意缺陷多动症状得分负相关；冲动因子与注意缺陷多动症状得分正相关。自我控制总体与注意缺陷和多动冲动相关显著即注意缺陷多动症状与自我控制能力存在负相关。在回归分析中，自我控制系统对于注意缺陷多动症状有负向的预测作用，而冲动系统对注意缺陷多动症状存在正向的预测作用。注意缺陷多动症状与儿童的冲动性的关系要比与控制性的关系更为紧密，控制系统是通过冲动系统的中介作用对注意缺陷多动冲动症状产生抑制作用的。 总之，在自我控制的表现上，随着年龄增长，呈现上升趋势，即年龄越大，3-9岁儿童的自我控制表现显著变好。学龄后儿童的自我控制明显好于学龄前儿童。在自我控制的表现上，性别差异显著。女童的表现要显著高于男童。在自我发展与注意缺陷多动冲动的相关上，自我控制系统对于注意缺陷多动症状有负相关，而冲动系统对注意缺陷多动症状存在正相关。注意缺陷多动症状与儿童的冲动性的关系要比与控制性的关系更为紧密，控制系统是通过冲动系统的中介作用对注意缺陷多动冲动症状产生抑制作用的。
The dual-systems theory believes that self-control is affected jointly by the impulsion system and the self-control system. Three to nine-years old is an critical stage of self-control development. Most of the researches focused on the influence of cognitive performance and emotion management on self-control development, and neglected the interaction between the impulsion system and self-control system. In addition, it is conceived widely that self-control is associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Some recent research claimed that the core damage of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on three to nine-year old is the lack of self- control. In the Dual-systems model, the interaction between self-control regulation and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were not explored completely. Being one of the most commonly seen neural disorder, Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder for children from 3-9 years old was not given enough attention in the previous studies. To bridge the gap, this research are going to explores the developmental pattern of self-control of children who are three to nine years old and examines the interaction between self-control and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder based on the dual-system model. The samples of this research are children from three to nine years old and their parents ranging from six Chinese provinces (Ningxia, Anhui, Shanxi, Sichuan, Fujian and Jilin). The samples were categorized by genders, school grades (from pre-school to 3rd grade), and geographic regions (urban and rural areas in China). Following the sub-layer variable of methodology, 1390 sample (688 boys and 702 girls) were selected in this research. Using the age of six as a threshold, samples are grouped into preschoolers (635 children) groups and school-age children groups (755 children). DSSCSC has been selected to examine the dimension of self-control and impulsion, and ADHD-RS-IV has been selected to explore the degree of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The results of study showed that depends on ages the pace of self-control development and impulsion system development differs at different periods within the age range of 3-9. Self-control development has a rapid developmental period between 7-9 years old while impulsion system does not have a obvious rapid development phase. The school-age children shown significantly better self-control comparing with the preschoolers. Concerned with gender, girls shown better self-control than boys generally. Concerned with ages it showed that age plays a significant role on children before seven. On the contrary, impulsion did not vary much as age increased. Impulsion affects boys more than their female counterparts. The results of the second research demonstrated that there is a negative correlation between self-control and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and impulsion shown the positive correlation. The research illustrated that self-control and impulsion can be used as negative and positive factors to predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Impulsion is relatively more associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder than self-control. Self-control system restrains Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder via Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In conclusion, to children who ages from three to nine-year olds, their self-control ability are getting betters when their age growth. School-age children shown obvious better self-control than preschoolers. Concerned with self-control, girls shows better self-control than boys generally. As of the correlation between self-development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, self-control reduces the likelihood of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder while impulsion increased Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has a closer correlation with impulsion than self-control. Self-control system restrains Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder via the mediation effect of the impulsion system.
|王雪珩. 3-9岁儿童自我控制的发展及其与注意缺陷多动症状的相关研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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