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运用“房-树-人”绘画投射测验对大学生人格的研究
Alternative TitleThe Research on Personality Characteristics of College Students in using of the “House-Tree-Person” projective Test
杨晓斌
Subtype同等学力硕士
2015-07
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword“房-树-人”绘画投射测验 因素结构 绘画尺寸 内隐性人格特质
Abstract 大学生阶段是个体一生人格成长的比较复杂和关键的时期,要解决的心理矛盾和危机较多,容易产生各种心理问题。有研究表明,精神疾病已经成为大学生休学、退学、死亡的主要原因;无论国内还是国外,大学生心理障碍的发生率都在10%-30%之间。因此,大学生群体的人格成长和心理健康是当今共同关注的重要问题。 由于许多心理问题较为隐蔽,而目前绝大多数的评估量表为文字描述,容易受到社会赞许、自我掩饰等因素影响,并不利于潜在心理问题的筛查。房-树-人测验(简称HTP)作为一种已经广为人知的投射测验,施测简便有效,能够较为真实地反映出被试者的人格内容。以往研究多以绘画内容特征出现的频度为指标进行分析,但是相关的标准化实证研究还很少见到,需要更多的信效度资料提供支持。 研究目的:本研究以大学生被试在HTP投射测验中绘画的形式特征:房、树、人的量化指标为基础,来探索该测验的因素结构,并检验其在大学生人格评估上的应用。 研究方法:对421名在校大学生同时施测HTP投射测验与EPQ人格问卷。对HTP的结果进行深入分析,探明HTP测验的因素结构,并以其绘画的基本形式特征:房、树、人的量化指标来推测大学生被试的人格。其次,通过与EPQ测验的结果比较,进一步说明HTP测验在揭露内隐性人格特质上的有效性。最后进一步探索HTP测验的影响因素情况。 研究结果: 1.HTP测验的“房”、“树”、“人”三因素具有清晰的因素结构,各因素分别对应人格特质中的内外倾(E分)、精神质(P分)和神经质(N分);但各因素均与掩饰性(L分)无相关。 2.HTP测验的绘画尺寸量化结果显示:大学生被试的性别差异显著,女生分数均比男生高,差异显著性从高至低依次为“人”、“树”、“房”;不同专业大学生之间在“人”的分数上均有显著差异,其中艺术生最高,文科生其次,理科生最低;在“树”的分数上,艺术生分数显著高于文、理科生,但文科与理科学生之间的差异无统计学意义。不同生源地学生在“房”的分数上,城市学生的分数显著高于城郊和农村学生,但城郊与农村学生之间的差异无统计学意义;“树”的分数上,城市学生和城郊学生的分数均显著高于农村学生,但城市与城郊学生之间的差异无统计学意义。隔代家庭大学生的“树”分数显著高于核心家庭大学生。 3.与EPQ测验相比较,HTP测验(尤其“树”因素)能够较好地展现大学生丰富的无意识人格特质,提供更为潜在的心理问题信息,填补大学生人格评估中的重要空缺。 4.本次HTP测验具有较好的重测信度、评分者信度和结构效度。 5.大学生的“专业”和“家庭关系”两项人口学因素对HTP得分有正向预测力;“生源地”人口学因素对HTP得分有负向预测力。 结论:HTP测验具有结构性,不仅它的“房”、“树”、“人”三因素各具结构性特征,分别对应人格特质中的内外倾、精神质和神经质;且与自陈量表相比,其绘画尺寸特征在反映大学生被试更多心理层面、更深人格层次的特质上有比较独特的作用。HTP测验具备较好的信效度。大学生的专业、家庭关系、生源地等人口学因素对HTP测验有显著影响。这些结果填补了HTP投射测验在标准化实证研究领域的多项空白,为大学生的心理健康测查和人格评估提供了一个新思路、新方法。
Other Abstract Personality development is complicated and important at university level. With many psychological conflicts and crises to deal with, people are possible to suffer from psychological problems during the university. Former researches indicated that mental diseases are the main reason of quitting school and death. The occurrence rate of psychological disorders among university students is from 10% to 30%. Therefore, focusing on the development of personality and mental health of university students is quite important. Considering the problems about social desirability and protection of privacy, it's difficult to achieve the screening of psychological problems. What's more, most of standard inventories are textual descripted, and psychological problems are elusive, which may also affect the effect of psychological screening. House-Tree-Person technique (HTP) is a worldwide used projective test to evaluate the personality. Former researches always used the frequency of the features of the painting content as a criterion to analyze the result of HTP. And rare standard research can be found to support the validity of this kind of evaluation method, which indicate that more data of reliability and validity are needed. Objective: By using quantitative index of house, tree and person in HTP, we aim at exploring the factor structure of HTP and examining the apply for evaluating the personality of university students. Method: 421 university students are recruited to finish HTP and EPQ. By analyzing the features of house, tree, person, we establish quantitative index to evaluate the factor structure of HTP. Besides, we compare the results of HTP and EPQ to explore the validity of HTP to test implicit personality. Finally, we want to explore the effect factors of HTP. Results: 1. House, tree, person in HTP test has a clear factor structure, which respectively corresponding to extraversion- introversion, psychoticism and neuroticism. 2. Sex is an effect factor of HTP result among university students. The result of female is higher than that of male significantly. The results of HTP among students of different majors are also different. Art students get the highest score, science students are followed. Students from different districts get different scores on "House" and "Tree". Urban students get higher scores than suburban and rural students on "House", and urban and suburban students get higher scores than rural students on "Tree". 3. Compared with EPQ, HTP, especially the part of "Tree", can indicate the implicit personality of university students better, and that can help to provide more information about possible psychological problems. 4.The retest reliability, scorer reliability and construct validity of HTP is good. 5. Major, family background,origin of students will affect the result of HTP test. Conclusion: HTP test has a clear factor structure. Compared with self-report inventories, painting features in HTP test can indicate more information about psychological status and personalities of university students. HTP test has good reliability and validity. Major, family background,origin of students will affect the result of HTP test. These results provided evidences of standardization of analysis of HTP results, and they also offer a new method of evaluating university students' personality and psychological status. 
Subject Area健康心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20566
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨晓斌. 运用“房-树-人”绘画投射测验对大学生人格的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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