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压力生活事件和反应风格对青少年抑郁的影响
其他题名The Influence of Response Styles and Stressful Life Events on Chinese Adolescent Depressive Symptoms
杜嘉嘉
学位类型同等学力硕士
2015-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词反应风格 比例分数 压力生活事件 青少年 抑郁症状
摘要研究目的:本研究基于Nolen-Hoeksema提出的抑郁反应风格理论,旨在从认知角度探讨青少年抑郁的成因:⑴ 探讨反应风格及其比例分数与中国青少年抑郁的相关;⑵ 在国内青少年样本中检验反应风格的应激-认知易感调节模型;⑶ 在国内青少年样本中检验反应风格的应激-认知易感中介模型;⑷ 探讨中国青少年的反应风格和抑郁症状的性别和年龄差异,以及性别和年龄是否对应激-认知易感调节模型或中介模型起到调节作用。 研究方法:研究数据源自中国科学院心理研究所双生子数据库。此项研究启动于2006年,分为三个阶段进行,收集了北京18个区县的青少年双生子数据。本研究取自第三阶段共932对具有完整数据的双生子。采用自评问卷测量反应风格,压力生活事件以及抑郁水平,并运用SPSS16.0对数据进行相关分析和分层回归分析。 研究结果:⑴ 冗思与抑郁呈显著正相关,分散注意和解决问题与抑郁呈显著负相关,比例分数与抑郁呈显著正相关,且相关系数大于冗思或分散注意和解决问题与抑郁的相关系数;⑵ 反应风格和比例分数对压力生活事件和青少年抑郁的关系的调节作用不显著;⑶ 冗思和比例分数对压力生活事件和青少年抑郁的关系起到部分中介作用,比例分数的中介效应在总效应中所占比例最高;⑷ 我国青少年的反应风格和比例分数的性别和年龄差异均不显著,抑郁症状的性别差异不显著而年龄差异显著,高龄组高于低龄组;⑸ 性别对冗思与抑郁的关系起到调节作用,女孩中冗思和抑郁的相关更高;⑹ 应激-认知易感调节模型的性别和年龄差异均不显著;然而,冗思的应激-认知易感中介模型的性别和年龄差异均显著。 研究结论及意义:⑴ 从认知角度而言,应多使用积极的认知风格,如:分散注意、解决问题,尽量减少或避免冗思的使用。相对单一的反应风格,比例分数对抑郁的解释力更高。⑵ 压力生活事件通过冗思加剧青少年抑郁,说明冗思特别是强迫思考是青少年抑郁的认知易感因素,倾向于使用冗思这一反应风格的孩子更易抑郁,因此,在面对应激时,有意识地减少冗思的使用,可能可以避免或减轻抑郁症状。⑶ 高龄组的抑郁症状高于低龄组,说明我国青少年抑郁症状可能始发于青春早期。⑷ 冗思水平较高时,女孩比男孩更易出现抑郁症状。因此,应对女孩的认知脆性发展尤为关注。⑸ 冗思的应激-认知易感中介模型的性别和年龄差异均显著,说明在儿童和青少年时期,伴随经历的压力事件增加,冗思的认知脆性逐渐稳定,青春中晚期可能是我国青少年抑郁的高发时期。
其他摘要Research Objective: The aim of this research is to explore the mechanisms of adolescent depression from a cognitive perspective, based on the response styles theory proposed by Nolen-Hoeksema: (1) research on the relations between three response styles, ratio scores and Chinese adolescents’ depression; (2) to examine stress-cognitive vulnerability moderation model in Chinese adolescent sample; (3) to examine stress-cognitive vulnerability mediation model in Chinese adolescent sample; (4) research on gender and age differences in response styles and depressive symptoms, and whether gender or age moderates stress-cognitive vulnerability moderation model or mediation model. Research Method: Research data come from Beijing twin study database in Chinese academy of sciences, institute of psychology. The twin study started in 2006, was divided into three stages, collecting Chinese adolescent twins data of 18 districts and counties in Beijing. Participants of this research were 932 pairs of Chinese adolescent twins with complete data in third round. Self-reported questionnaires were adopted to measure children's response styles, stressful life events and depressive symptoms. We use SPSS 16.0 to process correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Research Results: (1) Rumination was positively associated with depressive symptoms; distraction and problem-solving were negatively associated with depressive symptoms; ratio score was positively associated with depressive symptoms, and the correlation coefficient between ratio scores and depressive symptoms was higher than that between response styles and depressive symptoms. (2) Neither response styles nor ratio scores moderate the relationship between stressful life events and adolescent depression. (3) Rumination and ratio scores partially mediated the relationship between stressful life events and depressive symptoms, ratio scores had the highest proportion of mediation effect in the total effect. (4) Gender and age differences were not significant in response styles and ratio scores; gender difference was not significant while age difference was significant in depressive symptoms, age group was higher than younger group. (5) Gender moderates the relationship between rumination and depressive symptoms, the association between rumination and depressive symptoms was higher in girls. (6) Gender and age differences were not significant in stress-cognitive vulnerability moderation model; while gender and age differences were both significant in stress-cognitive vulnerability mediation model of rumination. Research conclusions and practical significance: (1) From cognitive perspective, adolescents should use more positive response styles, such as distraction and problem-solving, and minimize the use of rumination. Compared with single response style, ratio scores had more explanatory power to depressive symptoms. (2) Stressful life events exacerbated adolescent depression through rumination, illustrates rumination, especially brooding, was cognitive susceptible factor to adolescent depression. Child who tend to use rumination was more likely to be depressed. Therefore, when face to stress, should reduce the use of rumination consciously, might avoid or reduce depressive symptoms. (3) Depressive symptoms was higher in age group than that of younger group, illustrates depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents might be starting at early puberty. (4) The higher the rumination level, girls were more likely to be depressed than boys. Thus, we should pay more attention to the cognitive development of brittleness in girls. (5) Gender and age differences in stress-cognitive vulnerability mediation model of rumination were both significant, illustrates in the period of childhood and adolescence, with the experience of pressure increased, cognitive vulnerability of rumination gradually stabilized, made middle-late puberty might be the peak period on depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents.
学科领域健康心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20569
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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GB/T 7714
杜嘉嘉. 压力生活事件和反应风格对青少年抑郁的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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