Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, with a high incidence, great harm, unclear etiology and treatment of difficult. Although there are more and more study of ADHD, but the problem is widespread, such as the confusion of symptoms and disease, regarding the scale as a diagnostic, etc. In addition, there are large differences between researches, and the national study is absent, although more and more researchers focus on the sleep problems of ADHD patients in recent years, but there is still no consistent conclusion. Accordingly, 1535 children of six regions aged 3~10 in China were investigated during April to June in 2013. We choose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis scale of parents and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale as a tool to investigate the occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity in children and its relationship with sleep, supplement the epidemiological data of ADHD, provide basis for the early education in our country. The main research results are as follows. 1. The incidence of ADHD in 3~10 years old children: The total positive rate was 24.95%, the highest incidence is between 7~9 years old. Boys had higher score than girls in each index, the positive rate of girls was higher than boys. Rural children had higher positive rate than urban children. 2. Father rarely playing games with children and the time of looking at the screen was the risk factors of ADHD Symptoms. favourable family relationship was the protective factors. 3. The sleep problems have relationship with ADHD symptom. Daytime dysfunction, sleep disorders, the time of going to bed and sleep time is the risk factors for ADHD symptom. We should pay attention to girls' ADHD problems and the sleep problems with ADHD. Parents should establish good family relationships, pay attention to children's physical and mental health growth, develop childrens' good way of life. Father should participate actively in the children's lives.