|Alternative Title||Research on Improving Employees’Hygiene Behaviors Based on Attraction Effect and Compromise Effect|
目前流行的食品安全管理观点基于经济人假说下的标准化决策理论，认为员工服从上级的安全生产规定，其认知与行为是一致的，而且其偏好是稳定的，只需要向员工强调安全生产责任与规范，即可达到食品安全的标准。然而，近年来出现的食品安全事故发现，员工违背安全生产规定的现象时有发生。随着近年来行为决策理论的兴起与发展，研究发现众多违背标准化决策理论和偏好公理的现象，吸引效应与折衷效应是该研究的一个分支。吸引效应认为，不对称占优备择项的加入会令选择集中的目标备择项变得更有吸引力，从而提高其被选概率。折衷效应认为加入一个新备择项使目标备择项处于选择集的中间位置，依然能提高其被选概率。吸引效应与折衷效应强调了情境对个体的决策影响。按照两种策略增加消毒方式，对于食品企业的安全管理具有重要的现实意义。 本文的研究目的有三个，一是验证在食品安全生产管理背景下吸引效应的稳定性；二是探索按吸引效应策略，添加不对称占优备择项对员工的卫生态度与行为影响；三是探索按折衷效应策略，添加新备择项对员工的卫生行为的影响。 本文首先分析食品安全的“产业链－企业－个人”三个层级，强调个体决策在食品安全中的关键作用；然后是发展回顾，从食品安全管理对人性从经济人假说到有限理性的发展，提出描述性决策理论的重要性；其三是吸引效应与折衷效应的研究回顾，包括概念、基本策略与影响因素。 本文采用的研究方法包括以文献研究法搜集整理文献，以观察法、问卷法、访谈法收集数据，以现场研究为主的研究方法。此外，介绍了工厂的实验背景，从而确定变量的选择与测量方式、备择项的属性选择与样本构成。 实验部分是本研究的核心。首先通过预实验确定材料是否合乎实验选材要求，然后通过三个实验对研究假设进行验证。三个实验均为准实验设计。实验1分实验组与对照组，发现在添加不对称占优备择项后会显著提高员工对消毒材料的使用态度，即在食品安全生产管理领域中也存在吸引效应。实验2与实验3的设计一样，包括20天前测与20天后测，分实验组与对照组。因变量为酒精使用量、手部卫生合格率与桌面卫生合格率。实验2证明在添加不对称占优备择项后，对员工卫生行为起到促进作用。实验3证明按折衷效应策略添加新备择项，对员工卫生行为也起到促进作用。 最后归纳研究对学术的贡献与创新点，包括将吸引效应与折衷效应扩展到食品安全管理领域、采用现场研究而非情境模拟以获得真实数据、将“不选择”纳入选择集，有别于迫选设计。之后归纳研究对实践的贡献与启示，尤其是有助于大幅降低食品企业的经济损失，为企业管理提供一种有效、节省人力、物力与时间成本的管理技巧。最后指出研究存在的不足，提出今后应注意样本多样化、关注心理疲劳与群体规范的影响、设计多元选择集的研究方向。
The currently widespread viewpoints regarding food safety is based on the normative decision theory of homo economicus which believes provided the work safety responsibility and regulations are communicated clearly to the employees, the food safety standards would be guaranteed. As the employees tend to abide by the work safety rules and regulations stressed by the managers, the understandings are in line with behavior and its preference is quite stable. However, based on the food safety cases of the recent years, the violations to the work safety regulations did happen from time to time. Along with the emergence and development of the behavioral decision theory in the recent years, a number of phenomena such as normative decision theory and preference axiom were found through research, among which the attraction effect and compromise effect is one of its subsidiaries. The key point of attraction effect is that the joining of the asymmetrically dominated alternative will make the target alternative more attractive, thus improving the probability of being chosen. The key point of compromise effect is that the joining of a new alternative will make the target alternative be in the middle position of the selection set，thus improving the probability of being chosen. The attraction effect and compromise effect put stress on the effect that the context works on the individuals. According to the strategies of two effects to add the disinfection method，it will play the important and practical role to the safety management of the food enterprises. There are three purposes of this study. The first is to verify the stability of attraction effect under the background of food safety management. The second is to explore the employees’ attitude and behavior towards hygiene control after adding the asymmetrically dominated alternative, which is according to the strategy of the attraction effect. The third is to explore the employees’ behavior towards hygiene control after adding a new alternative, which is according to the strategy of the compromise effect. Firstly, it is a question level analysis which shows insights of the three levels including the industrial chain of food safety, enterprise and individual with focus on the key effect of individual decisions towards food safety. Followed by the development review from the homo economicus to the bounded rationality, the importance of descriptive decision theory was proposed. Thirdly, it is a study review of the attraction effect and compromise effect, including conception, basic strategies and influential factors. The methodology applied in this paper included literature research for searching and managing the references, the observation method, questionnaire, interview method for data collection and field research as primary method. In addition, the plant based experimental background was introduced in this chapter, in order to define the approaches applied to select and measure the variables, the attribute selection of the alternatives and the structure of the samples. The experimental part is the key to the study. Firstly, verify whether the materials match the requirements for selection through pilot test and then verity the hypothesis through three experiments. Three experiments are designed by quasi-experiment. The first experiment included experiment group and control group. It was found the employees’ attitude towards sterile materials could be enhanced dramatically by adding the asymmetrically dominated alternative, namely, the attraction effect also exists in the field of food safety production management. The second experiment and the third experiment were the same design, which includes 20-day pretest and 20-day posttest between experiment group and control group. The dependent variables include alcohol use quantity, hand hygienic pass rate and desktop hygienic pass rate. The second experiment proved that the hygiene behavior of employees could be promoted by adding the asymmetrically dominated alternative, which is according to the strategy of the attraction effect. The third experiment proved that the hygiene behavior of employees could be promoted by adding a new alternative, which is according to the strategy of the compromise effect. Lastly, there is a study summary followed by a conclusion on the contribution and innovation aspects to the academic field, including extending the attraction effect and compromise effect to the food safety management field, applying the field research for authentic data collection rather than scene simulations, bring no-choice into selection sets which is different from forced choice. The contribution and enlightenment to the practice by this study was concluded afterwards. The economic losses of food manufacturers could be decreased dramatically by this study, which provides an effective management technics towards manpower, material resources and time reduction. Last but not the least, areas for future improvement of the study was pointed out, like diversifying samples, focus on mental fatigue and group norm, and additional directions for study on designing multiple selection sets.
|Keyword||吸引效应 折衷效应 卫生行为 安全管理 食品安全|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|陈慧. 基于吸引效应与折衷效应促进员工卫生行为的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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