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大学新生心理灵活性与心理健康相关研究
其他题名The study of the relation between psychological flexibility and psychological health of college freshmen
李新
学位类型同等学力硕士
2015-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词接纳与承诺疗法 心理灵活性 心理健康 性别差异
摘要随着大学生的生活、情感和就业压力明显增大,社会的变革也给大学生带来巨大的心理冲击,各种因素交织在一起,极易造成大学生心理发展中的失衡状态,由此产生的心理问题也日益突出。许多研究应用SCL-90 量表对大学生的心理健康进行测查,根据有关研究,大学生的心理障碍发生率在16-30%之间。个体的心理灵活性是其心理健康的重要组成部分,接纳与承诺疗法(Acceptance and commitment therapy,ACT)的核心就是增加人们的心理灵活性。ACT认为心理干预的最终目的是提高心理灵活性,以帮助人们克服心理僵化(心理不灵活)和行动障碍,而不是消除负面情感或是降低消极情绪,这样才能帮助人们合理地处理生活中的各种困难,持续保持健康的心理状态。ACT 将人类的心理病理模型直观地用一个六边形来表示。在本研究中,我们主要探讨ACT病理模型的两个子元素:经验性回避(相对于接纳)和认知融合(相对于认知解离)。 本研究在北京某高校化学院整群选取全体789名大一新生,采用认知融合问卷(CFQ)、接纳与行动问卷第二版(AAQ-Ⅱ)、症状自评量表(SCL-90-R)对大学生心理灵活性和心理健康的关系进行了研究。对数据进行了因素分析、相关分析、回归分析等统计方法。 本研究主要结果如下: 1、 心理灵活性与心理健康的相关分析 经验性回避或认知融合和SCL-90-R各个维度,包括躯体化、强迫症状等,达到中等程度的显著相关。认知融合或经验性回避程度越低,意味着个体心理健康各方面症状越轻;认知融合或经验性回避程度越高,则个体各方面的心理症状越严重。另外,经验性回避和认知融合之间达到高相关,说明它们心理结构类似,支持了经验性回避和认知融合相互推衍的理论描述。这些结果说明,心理灵活性水平或许是各种心理症状普遍的成因和影响因素。 2、心理灵活性元素和性别的交互作用 对心理灵活性元素和性别的交互作用分析发现,认知融合在大学新生女生和男生中对心理症状程度的解释量不同, CFQ和性别对SCL-90总均分存在交互作用,经验性回避和性别对SCL-90总均分则不存在交互作用。认知融合而不是经验性回避对心理症状程度的解释存在性别差异,说明了两种心理建构之间的差别。 3、男女生心理灵活性对SCL-90的层次回归分析 对性别分层处理并对心理症状程度多元回归分析后,女生群体的认知融合对心理症状的解释量有递增效应,然而在男生群体中这样的递增效应却不存在。说明女生较男生更容易因为言语事件响应的刺激所控制,因而感受到心理痛苦, CFQ在不同性别的大学新生群体中在预测SCL-90总均分的程度上存在差异。结果符合早期的思维反刍研究,Nolen-Hoeksema认为女性更容易受到社会压力的影响,进而反复的归因,导致抑郁情绪的加深。 结论:心理灵活性与心理症状之间呈现显著负相关,经验性回避和认知融合之间的高度相关,但是它们的心理结构并非完全相同。CFQ和性别对SCL-90总均分存在交互作用,男性相比较女性的心理症状更少受到认知融合的影响,认知融合在不同性别的大学新生群体中在预测SCL-90总均分的程度上存在差异,这进一步说明了六边形心理灵活性模型中对经验性回避和认知融合元素区分的必要性。
其他摘要As the pressure of life, emotion and employment of college students is obviously increased, the social transformation also brings enormous psychological impact to college students. Various intertwined factors are extremely easy to cause imbalance status of college students' psychological development and psychological problems increased by it are prominent. Many studies used SCL - 90 scales to test the mental health of college students. In accordance with the related research, college students' psychological disorder is between 16-30%. Individual psychological flexibility is an important part of the psychological health, the core of Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), is to increase people's psychological flexibility. The ACT shows the ultimate goal of psychological intervention is to improve the mental flexibility, which help people overcome psychological inflexibility and disorder of action, rather than clear away negative emotions or mood.Only with this, people are able to overcome all kinds of difficulties in life reasonably and keep a healthy psychological state.The model of psycho-pathology is shown by a hexagon. In this research, we investigate two childelements of the ACT model: experiential avoidance (relative to the acceptance) and cognitive fusion (relative to the cognitive defusion). By the method of questionnaire, 789 subjects were selected and assessed with the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-Second Edition ( AAQ-Ⅱ), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) to study the relationship between psychological flexibility and psychological health. Factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis were implemented. The main findings of this research were stated as follows: First, confirmatory factor analysis of psychological flexibility and psychological health Empirical avoidance or cognitive fusion and each dimension of SCL-90–R, including forced and somatization symptoms is significantly related to the medium degree.The lower degree of cognitive fusion or experiential avoidance, the lighter individual psychological symptoms is; The higher degree of cognitive fusion or experiential avoidance, the heavier individual psychological symptoms is. Furthermore, empirical avoidance is highly correlated to cognitive fusion. It shows their psychological structure is similar. Perhaps psychological flexibility is the cause and influencing factor of all kinds of psychological symptoms. Second, interactions between psychological flexibility element and sexuality The interactive analysis between psychological flexibility element and sexuality shows that cognitive fusion explains different variance from male to female in College. It shows that there is interaction between CFQ and Divide the total of SCL-90. That appears to be gender differences in the interpretation of the psychological distress with cognitive fusion, not with empirical avoidance. It shows the difference between two kinds of psychological construction. Third, the hierarchical regression analysis of psychological flexibility between male and female After treated gender stratification and analyzed hierarchical regression of psychological distress, the explanation for psychological distress has increased effects from the female’s cognitive fusion, but no exists in male group. It shows female is easier to be controlled by a stimulus of speech event response than male, thus feeling psychological pain. CFQ has difference in the degree which predicting total average SCL-90 among different sexual groups of college freshmen. The results conform to the early research of rumination. Nolen-Hoeksema thought that women are more easily affected by social pressure, repeated attribution, leading to the deepened depression. Conclusion: The study shows a significant negative correlation between the psychological flexibility and psychological distress. Empirical avoidance is highly correlated with cognitive fusion. Their psychological structure is not the very same. Male’s psychological distress is less affected by cognitive fusion than female’s. Cognitive fusion has difference in the degree which predicting total score SCL-90 among different sexual groups of college freshmen. This further illustrates the necessity of the distinction between empirical avoidance element and cognitive fusion element in hexagon mental flexibility model.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20581
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李新. 大学新生心理灵活性与心理健康相关研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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