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学前儿童识字量发展的相关影响因素的研究
其他题名Research on the influence factors related with the development of literacy ability of preschool-age children
肖茜
学位类型同等学力硕士
2015-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词语音意识 正字法 前书写 家庭阅读环境 识字量
摘要 
识字量是儿童阅读能力的基本指标之一。研究发现,早期读写能力会受到一些因素的影响,如:语音意识、正字法技能、前书写能力和家庭阅读环境等。那么,这些因素与儿童的识字量存在怎样的关系呢?在儿童正式学习识字之前又有怎样的发展趋势?因此本研究系统地考察这些因素在学前中大班幼儿中的发展趋势,以及它们与学前幼儿识字量之间的关系。 本研究的被试来自北京市某所幼儿园的48名幼儿,其中,中班21人,平均年龄4.9岁;大班27人,平均年龄5.9岁。对被试进行一系列阅读相关因素的测验,包括:语音意识测验,正字法意识测验,前书写能力测验,家庭阅读环境测验。同时,还进行了识字量测验和瑞文智力测验。研究采用个别施测的方法。 结果表明,除家庭阅读环境外,其余成绩均表现出明显的组间差异,即大班幼儿在各项阅读技能测试上的得分均显著高于中班幼儿。此外,中班组被试的语音意识、正字法技能与识字量测验得分之间存在显著的正相关,表现为被试的语音意识/正字法技能越强,其识字量成绩越高。大班组被试识字量成绩与图形书写技能、语音意识正相关,即儿童的图形书写技能/语音意识能力越强,其识字量水平也越高。进一步回归分析显示,中班组幼儿的各项阅读技能对识字量都有贡献,其中正字法技能和语音意识的贡献相对较大,分别为9.7%和4.8%。大班组幼儿的图形书写能力、正字法技能对阅读能力有显著贡献,分别为23.5%、4.2%。 本研究说明,学前大班幼儿语音意识、正字法意识、前书写能力较中班幼儿均有显著提高。学前中班阶段,语音意识、正字法加工技能与识字量有紧密相关,其中,正字法技能对识字量的贡献最大。学前大班阶段,正字法技能、图形书写能力与识字能力存在显著相关,图形书写能力对识字量的贡献更大。
其他摘要In the preschool period, literacy is regarded as one of indexes of reading abilities. Previous studies found that emergent literacy is influenced by factors such as phonological awareness, orthographic processing skills, emergent writing skills, and home literacy environment. Then, how is the relationship between these factors and children’s literacy? Before children learning characters normally, what about these factors’ development? In order to make up for the lack of empirical research in Chinese emergent literacy, the current study systematically explored the development trends of these factors related with emergent literacy in children aged between 4 and 6, and investigated the relationship between these factors and literacy,and to make up for the deficiency of empirical research in relevant filed. Testers were consisted of 48 kindergarten students and their parents. Among the children, 21 students are from middle class with an average age of 4.9, others are from top class with an average age of 5.9. Every child was tested in six different aspects respectively, i.e. phonological awareness level, orthographic processing skills, emergent writing skills, home literacy environment evaluation, amount of recognized characters and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. All the data were compared between these two groups, and the result indicated that tested aspects, except home literacy environment, were statistically significant different among groups: students from top class scored higher than those from middle class. Besides, a positive correlation was found between phonological awareness, orthographic processing skills and the amount of recognized characters in middle class testers, that is to say, the higher phonological awareness level they had/ the better orthographic processing skills they acquired, the more characters they recognized. For top class testers, there was a positive correlation between emergent writing of shapes ability, phonological awareness and the amount of recognized characters, namely, the higher writing of shapes ability/ phonological awareness level they had, the more characters they recognized. Further regression analysis demonstrated that for middle class children aged between 4 and 5, orthographic processing skills (9.7%), followed by phonological awareness (4.8%), played an important role in children’s single-character recognition ability. In the meantime, for top class children aged between 5 and 6, emergent writing of shapes made 23.5% contributions to children’s reading skills, compared with 4.2% of orthographic processing and marginally significant phonological awareness which was 1.7% only. The paper concludes that the very fact that preschool children from top class scored higher than those from middle class in phonological awareness level, orthographic processing skills and emergent writing skills. In the middle class stage, orthographic processing skills proved itself to be the most significant factor influencing children literacy development, however, in the top class stage, emergent writing of shapes ability attached more importance.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20583
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
肖茜. 学前儿童识字量发展的相关影响因素的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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