Researchers have long been interested in the role of personality in spouses’ marital satisfaction .Despite a growing body of literature on the link between couple’s personality and marital quality, the evidence is equivocal. This study investigated whether the profile-based similarity is associated with greater marital satisfaction, and the possible moderating effect of couple’s personality similarity on the relationship between stress and marital quality. The cross-sectional data of 4644 couples from the national survey of mental health database in china(2009) was used. The average age of the husband is 42.7±4.7 years old, the wife is 40.9±4.6 years old, Their educational level is 52.9%, 27.9%, and 19.3%, or junior high school and below, high school, and college or above, respectively Couples completed Locke -Wallance marital adjustment test, CES-D and Eysenck personality questionnaire short scale for Chinese version (EPQ - RSC). The main results of this study are as follows: 1、Couples’ personality similarity and their marital quality have significant positive correlation . 2、The relationship between couple's personality similarity and marital quality was stronger in lower-income husband group both compared to other men or to their wives . 3、The effect of personality similarity on marital quality varied according to the levels of husbands' income. The relationship between couple's personality similarity and marital quality was stronger in lower-income husband group both compared to other men or to their wives . 4、The effect of personality similarity on the marital quality were varied according to the level of spouse depression. Among participants whose husband or wife had higher level of depression, couple’s personality similarity had stronger effect on his/her perceived marital quality. Conclusion: husband and wife personality similarity related to marital quality significantly, and the couple’s personality similarity on relationship between stress and marital quality.