|其他题名||Children’s Fine Motor Skill’s Development and its Relation to Self Control & Attention|
|关键词||精细动作 发展 性别 自我控制 注意 相关|
|摘要||精细动作指个体主要凭借手以及手指等部位的小肌肉或小肌肉群而产生的运动, 主要反映了在感知觉、注意等多方面心理活动的配合下完成特定任务的能力。 本研究通过三个实验考察幼儿精细动作的发展情况及性别差异，三种精细动作与自我控制和注意的关系。研究一采用4（年龄组：3、4、5、6岁组）*2（性别：男、女）*3（精细动作类型：柱状抓握、三指抓握和两指抓握）混合设计，考察3-6岁幼儿的不同精细动作的发展特点，研究二包含实验2和实验3，分别采用《幼儿自我控制教师评定问卷》的教师评定方式和注意任务中的连续作业任务考察自我控制、注意和精细动作的关系。 研究结果显示： 首先，精细动作技能随着年龄增长不断提高（p<0.01）；不同的精细动作在幼儿阶段呈现不同的发展情况（p<0.01），其中柱状抓握操作最为熟练，其次是三指抓握，最后是两指抓握；3-4岁是幼儿精细动作的快速成长时期，5-6岁间发展减缓。而且性别和精细动作的任务的交互作用显著，男童在柱状抓握上显著优于女童，女童在两指抓握上呈现优势，说明男童擅长力量性的精细动作，而女童在准确性的精细动作上表现突出。 柱状抓握与自我控制的坚持性、自制力呈低相关（r=.24, .26,p<.05），而与注意的击中率呈中等程度相关（r=.32），与其他指标都不相关；三指抓握与柱状抓握类似，与自我控制的坚持性、自制力以及注意的击中率呈中等程度相关（r=.31, .32, .42）；而两指抓握与自我控制的四个维度（自觉性、坚持性、自制力、延迟满足）都达到显著相关（r=.23, .43, .40, .31, p<.05），并且与注意的击中率显著正相关（r=.50, p<0.05），与虚报率呈低等程度负相关（r=-.24, p<0.05）。当控制年龄做偏相关，结果发现：只有两指抓握与自我控制的坚持性及注意的击中率即保持情况有显著的中等程度相关，相关系数分别为.33和.37，柱状抓握和三指抓握都没有这种关系。 本研究获得结论：年龄是幼儿精细动作发展的主要因素，精细动作技能随着年龄增长不断提高。不同的精细动作在幼儿期有不同的表现，男女童精细动作的发展存在差别，男童在力量性的精细动作上较好，女童在准确性方面的精细动作上突出。早期精细动作的发展与自我控制能力和注意力两种认知能力相关，越是复杂的精细动作与之两者的相关就越是明显。|
Fine motor skills refer to a motion where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers to complete specific tasks while coordinating with the body’s central nervous system and the brain’s ability to focus. Over three different experiments, children’s fine motor skills development were compared to their age, gender, ability to self-control and attention span. The research was divided into two parts. Part one, applied mixed design (four groups of children divided by ages three, four, five and six years old and by gender) to explore fine motor skills development against different tasks and gender. Part two included two experiments, one for evaluating the children’s self-control with providing teacher with a self-administered questionnaire; the other was for testing attention using a continuous performance task. First, the results showed that fine motor skill grew with age (p<0.01), three to four year old was the fastest development period for fine motor skills, at five to six years old that rate of development slowed down. Second, children’s performances were different with three different types of fine motor skills. The best performance was observed on the cylinder gripping task (power grip), followed by the three finger pincer grip and finally, the two finger pincer grip. Third, gender and age correlated to the fine motor skills performance of children. between three and three and a half years old, girls performed better than boys did on all three tasks; three to six year old; girl had an advantage over boys on the two finger tip pincer grip task; four and four and half year old boys showed little higher performance on the three finger tip pincer grip task; three and half to five and half year old boys performed much better than girls of the same age group on cylinder gripping task (power grip). Therefore, boys did better on fine motor skill requiring power and girls did better on fine motor skills requiring precision. The cylinder grip (power grip) was not significantly related to the dimensions of self-restraint, persistence(r=.24,.26), not related to consciousness and self-imposed delay of gratification. It was moderately related to the attention hit rate (r=.32), but not the false alarm of attention; three finger tip pincer grip had similar relationship with self-control and attention as the cylinder grip, it was moderately related to the dimensions of self-restraint, persistence (r=.31, .32) of self-control, and hit rate of attention (r=.42). But two finger tip pincer grip was related to all the four dimensions of self-restraint, persistence, consciousness and self-imposed delay of gratification (r=.23, .43, .40, .31), and it was related to the hit rate of attention significantly (r=.50), and negatively related to false alarm of attention (r=-.24). but when variable of age was controlled, only found two finger tip pincer grip was moderately related to the dimension of persistence in self-control and the hit rate of attention (r=.33, .37). This relation was not found on the cylinder grip (power grip) and three finger tip pincer grip tasks. The research concluded that, First, age was a factor of fine motor development in young children. Second, children had different performance levels for different fine motor skills tasks. Third, boys and girls also differed on performance: boys did better on the fine motor tasks requiring power while girls did better on the tasks requiring precision. Finally, Self-control and attention was related to fine motor skills, the more complex fine motor tasks, the more significant the relationship.
|耿达. 幼儿精细动作的发展及其与自我控制和注意的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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