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儿童跨期选择发展研究——新范式与新证据
其他题名Research On The Development Of Children’s Intertemporal——New Paradigm And New Evidence
任天虹
学位类型同等学力硕士
2015-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词儿童跨期选择 延迟满足 糖果沙漏任务 2-5周岁儿童
摘要跨期选择指人们对发生在不同时间的结果做出判断或选择,需要决策者在眼前的利益与未来的利益之间做出权衡与取舍,既是人类个体行为的重大特征,又是关系到国计民生的重要决策。 跨期选择源于经济学领域,其研究对象主要为成人,受时间折扣等因素制约,鲜有儿童的跨期选择研究,涉及儿童的也多与“延迟满足”混为一谈。事实上,做出选择与坚持选择是决策活动的两个重要阶段,跨期选择是对“做出选择”过程的研究,而延迟满足则源于心理学领域是对儿童为获得未来较大收益而抵制当前诱惑的“坚持选择”过程的研究。二者均致力于研究与时间相关的决策活动,但鲜见系统比较,更鲜见儿童跨期选择的实证性研究。 儿童尚不能理解抽象的“跨期时间”概念,是无法对儿童进行跨期决策研究的主要原因。本研究首先在实验范式上取得突破,设计了适用于儿童研究的“糖果沙漏”装置,在系统比较“跨期选择”与“延迟满足”异同的基础上,区别于以往儿童延迟满足的研究范式,成功地实现了跨期时间的转化及与结果的联结,使“儿童跨期选择研究”成为可能。 本研究借助“糖果沙漏”装置及专门设计的标准化实验范式,考察了儿童如何在发生在两个不同时间点的结果权衡后“做出选择”,以了解儿童跨期选择的发展趋势及特点。通过对2-5岁187名儿童被试的实验研究并结合其父母的问卷调查结果,本研究发现:(1)“糖果沙漏”实验工具有效,更加适用于年龄大于3岁7个月的儿童被试;(2)儿童跨期选择偏好随年龄增长差异显著,严格意义上的跨期选择从3岁7个月开始,这成为一个拐点,整体呈现U型曲线;(3)儿童在3岁7个月左右开始具备进行跨期选择的能力,与延迟满足4-5岁开始能够等待更长时间相比,出现跨期选择能力年龄提前的趋势;(4)父亲学历与大于3岁7个月儿童的跨期选择偏好存在相关。研究结果为儿童的跨期选择发展提供了实证性研究的新范式与新证据。
其他摘要 Intertemporal choice refers to one’s judgments or choices among outcomes at different points in time, which requires the policymaker to seek a trade-off between immediate benefits and future interests. This decision-making process, while being an essential individual behavior of human, also determines a nation’s future and the people's livelihood to some extent. The concept of intertemporal choice stems from economic research, mainly targeted at adults. Due to the time discounting rateand other constraints, little attention has been paid to children in this regard, while most studies involving children are intermingled with those addressing children’s "delay of gratification." Making and sticking to a decision are two important stages in decision making. Research into intertemporal choice is focused on the process of choosing from the options, while delay of gratification is rooted in psychological research on childhood persistence, where a child is supposed to refuse small but immediate treats to win big yet delayed rewards. Both studies dig into decision making conducts relevant to time. Nonetheless, the two areas are rarely compared systematically, with even fewer efforts made in empirical study of children’s intertemporal choice. The reason why children’s intertemporal decision-making is rarely studied mainly lies in the fact that children do not understand the non-figurative concept of "intertemporal." Above all, this study has made breakthrough in the experimental paradigm, with a "Candy Hourglass" device applicable to children designed to compare the similarities and differences between "intertemporal choice" and "delay of gratification" within one system. Unlike the past paradigms used in studying children's delay of gratification, this new model has successfully translated the concept of time span and matched it to the corresponding results, making it possible for children to make an intertemporal choice. Backed by the candy hourglass device and the standardized experimental paradigm with exclusive design, we examined how children weighed the results at two different points of time in a selection process to get the development trend and characteristics of children’s intertemporal choice. 187 children aged 2-5 were tested, combined with the results of the questionnaire survey of their parents, providing the following findings: (a) The candy hourglass is a valid experimental tool and is more applicable to children older than 43 months; (b) There are significant age-based disparities between children regarding intertemporal choice, and intertemporal choice in the strict sense begins at the 43th month; (c) According to the age where children show competence in intertemporal choice, compared with the group of 4-5 years old, who can wait a longer time for delayed gratification, the presence of LL-prone respondents occurs earlier than anticipated; and (d) There is a correlation between the intertemporal preference of children aged above 43 months and the education of their fathers. These findings offer a new paradigm with new evidence in children’s intertemporal choice development.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20587
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
任天虹. 儿童跨期选择发展研究——新范式与新证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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