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城市居民收入与主观幸福感的关系研究
其他题名Relation between income and subjective well being of urban residents
刘婕
学位类型同等学力硕士
2013
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词绝对收入 相对收入 城市居民平均收入 主观幸福感
摘要幸福是人类发展的一个重要课题,也是得到众多心理学家关注的热点问题。近些年来,我国经济飞速增长,人民收入不断提高,关于“钱能买到幸福吗?”的争论也越来越多。当代国外与收入有关的主观幸福感相关理论主要有需要理论和社会比较理论。需要理论认为个体的需要满足的程度与其生活满意度正相关。而社会比较理论强调社会比较对主观幸福感的影响,本研究试图从不同层面探索收入与主观幸福感之间的深层联系。本文主要研究我国城市居民的收入与主观幸福感之间的关系,具体分为三部分来探讨: 1. 个体的绝对收入及相对收入与其主观幸福感之间的关系; 2. 个体所在城市的居民平均收入对个体主观幸福感的影响; 3. 个体所在城市的居民平均收入在其绝对收入与主观幸福感的关系中起到何种作用? 本研究采用多阶段抽样的方法,从北京、抚顺、重庆、温州、乌鲁木齐等123个城市抽取5927名被试。采用积极-消极情绪量表和生活满意度量表对被试施测,并同时考察了被试的绝对收入、相对收入及其所在城市的居民平均收入。通过对数据的描述分析、相关分析、回归分析及多水平回归分析得出如下结果: 1. 个体的绝对收入显著正向预测主观幸福感。相对收入在个体的绝对收入与主观幸福感的关系中具有中介作用。绝对收入越高,个体的主观幸福感越高,绝对收入对主观幸福感的影响通过相对收入起作用。 2. 多水平跨层回归分析结果表明,个体所在城市的居民平均收入对个体主观幸福感的影响显著。在居民平均收入高的城市,个体体会到更多的积极情绪、消极情绪和更高的生活满意度。 3. 多水平跨层回归分析结果表明,个体所在城市的居民平均收入调节了个体的绝对收入与主观幸福感的之间的关系。与居民平均收入低的城市相比,在居民平均收入高的城市中,绝对收入高的个体体会到更多的生活满意度。 研究结论及其现实意义为: 1. 绝对收入的增高和相对收入的增高都可以有效地提高个体的主观幸福感。由此可知,提高居民的收入,即提高绝对收入,和缩小贫富差距,即提高广大居民的相对收入,都将会有效的提高我国城市居民的主观幸福感水平。 2. 无论个体的收入是高还是低,生活在居民平均收入高的城市中,个体都会感受到更多的情绪体验,包括积极情绪和消极情绪,并且对自己的幸福水平会有更高的认知评价。因此,生活在居民平均收入高的城市中,即使收入较低的人也会对自己的幸福状况更满意。 3. 如果个体收入较高,那么,他生活在居民平均收入高的城市中,会比生活在居民平均收入低的城市中感觉到更加满意。 4. 综合以上研究结果,缩小贫富差距,即提高广大居民的相对收入,和提高城市居民的收入,即同时提高居民的绝对收入和城市居民平均收入,都可以卓有成效的提高我国城市居民的幸福感。
其他摘要Many psychologists paid attention to the area of subjective well being as it is an important topic of the human development. With the fast developing of economic and the improving of people’s income, there are more and more arguments on whether money can buy happiness. The theory of subjective well being related to income mainly is need theory and social compare theory in modern foreign psychology. Need theory argues that there is a positive correlation between the degree of individual's need be met and his life satisfaction, while social compare theory emphasize the effect of social compare on subjective well being. This paper tries to explore the latent relation between income and subjective well being from a different view. This paper mainly studies the relation between income and subjective well being of Chinese city, details as follow: 1. The relation between individual's absolute income, relative income and subjective well being. 2. The effect of urban residents' average income on individual's subjective well being. 3. How does urban residents' average income effect the relation between absolute income and subjective well being? By multistage sampling, 5927 urban residents from 123 cities including Beijing, Fushun, Chongqing and Urumchi were assessed by Positive-Negative Affect Inventory and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Combining with their absolute income, relative income and urban residents' average income, using description analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis and multiple regression analysis, the results show that: 1. The absolute income had a significant main effect on subjective well being. Relative income had a mediating effect on the relation between absolute income and subjective well being. The higher absolute income was relative to higher subjective well being. Absolute income affected subjective well being through relative income. 2. The results of multiple level regression implicated that urban residents' average income significantly affected individual's subjective well being. Individual sensed more positive affect and negative affect and higher life satisfaction in cities with higher urban residents' average income. 3. The results of multiple level regression implicated that urban residents' average income mediated the relation between absolute income and subjective well being. Compare to living in cities with lower urban residents' average income, individual with higher absolute income sensed higher life satisfaction in cities with higher urban residents' average income. Conclusions and practical significance: 1. Both higher absolute income and higher relative income can enhance individual’s subjective well being. Subjective well being of Chinese urban residents can be enhanced by improving the income of the residents – increase absolute income – and reducing the gap between rich and poor – increase relative income. 2. Individual can sense more affect including positive and negative and give higher evaluation on his happiness status in cities with higher urban residents' average income. So in these cities, individual tends to give higher evaluation on his happiness status even he is poor. 3. Compare to living in cities with lower urban residents' average income, rich man feels more satisfaction in cities with higher urban residents' average income. 4. From what has been discussed above, reducing the gap between rich and poor can increase urban residents' relative income, improving the income of the urban residents can increase both urban residents' absolute income and urban residents' average income, both of them can enhance Chinese urban residents’ subjective well being effectively and significantly.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20625
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘婕. 城市居民收入与主观幸福感的关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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