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3~6岁儿童努力控制各成分的快速发展期及性别差异研究
其他题名Rapid Development Period and Gender Difference of the Component of Effortful Control in 3-6 Years Old Children
胡飞丽1,2; 吴丽芸1,2; 张兴利1; 施建农1,3
第一作者胡飞丽
2016
发表期刊中国全科医学
通讯作者邮箱zhangxl@ psych. ac. cn
ISSN1007-9572
文章类型期刊论文
卷号19期号:29页码:3549-3553
摘要

目的探讨3~6岁儿童努力控制各成分的快速发展期及性别差异,为儿童努力控制训练及干预奠定理论基础。方法于2014年7-8月在北京市两所幼儿园整群选取3~6岁儿童130名,采用4(年龄)×2(性别)×5(任务)的混合试验设计,通过选取努力控制试验的慢走、龟兔回家、袋中玩具、搭塔、低声耳语5项任务,评价儿童大动作控制、精细动作控制、延迟满足、根据信号抑制/启动活动及控制或调整声音的能力。结果重复测量方差分析显示,年龄与各成分交互作用显著(F=2.131,P=0.015),性别与各成分交互作用显著(F=3.068,P=0.019)。为检验年龄的简单效应,对努力控制试验结果进行多因素方差分析发现,年龄对努力控制试验各成分评分及总分主效应均显著(P<0.05)。其中3岁儿童大动作控制评分低于5、6岁儿童,4岁儿童大动作控制评分低于5岁儿童;3、4岁儿童精细动作控制评分低于5、6岁儿童;3岁儿童延迟满足、根据信号抑制/启动活动评分低于4、5、6岁儿童;3岁儿童控制或调整声音评分低于4、5、6岁儿童,4岁儿童控制或调整声音评分低于5、6岁儿童;3岁儿童总分低于4、5、6岁儿童,4岁儿童总分低于5、6岁儿童,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。为检验性别的简单效应,对努力控制试验结果进行独立样本t检验,男童精细动作控制评分高于女童,差异有统计学意义(t=2.244,P=0.027)。结论3~6岁儿童努力控制能力的增长呈现一定的年龄趋势,大动作控制、精细动作控制的快速发展期为4~5岁,延迟满足和根据信号抑制/启动活动的快速发展期为3~4岁,控制或调整声音的快速发展期为3~5岁,男童精细动作控制优于女童。

其他摘要

Objective To explore the rapid development period and gender difference of effortful control and the component of effortful control in 3-6 years old children so as to lay a theoretical foundation for the training or intervention of children's effortful control.Methods In this study,we enrolled 130 3-6 years old children from two kindergartens in Beijing and chose five tasks including Walk-a-line,Turtle and Rabbit,Gift-in-Bag,Tower and Whisper to assess children's effortful control in gross motor control,fine motor control,delay of gratification,suppressing/initiating activity to signal and controlling and adjusting voice with 4×2×5 mixed design from July to August in 2014.Results The results of repeated measurement ANOVA showed:the interaction between age and every component of effortful control was significant(F=2.131,P=0.015);the interaction between gender and every component of effortful control was significant(F=3.068,P=0.019).The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that age had significant effect on the score of each component and the total score of effortful control(P<0.05).The score of gross motor control of 3 years old children was significantly lower than that of 5,6 years old children,and 4 years old children was significantly lower than 5 years old children(P<0.05).The score of fine motor control of 3,4 years old children was significantly lower than that of 5,6 years old children(P<0.05).The score of delay of gratification and suppressing/initiating activity to signal of 3 years old children was significantly lower than that of 4,5,6 years old children(P<0.05).The score of controlling and adjusting voice of 3 years old children was significantly lower than that of 4,5,6 years old children,and 4 years old children was significantly lower than that of 5,6 years old children(P<0.05).The total score of effortful control of 3 years old children was significantly lower than that of 4,5,6 years old children,and 4 years old children was significantly lower than that of 5,6 years old children(P<0.05).The results of independent samples t test showed that boys' score was significantly higher than girls' score in fine motor control(t=2.244,P=0.027).Conclusion The effortful control competence and every component are increasing with age,but the rapid developmental speeds are different for the different components.The competence of gross and fine motor control are in 4-5 years old,and the competence of delay of gratification and suppressing/initiating activity to signal are in 3-4 years old,while the competence of controlling and adjusting voice is in 3-5 years old.Boys' performance is higher than girls' only in the competence of fine motor control.

关键词儿童行为 努力控制 快速发展期 性别差异
学科领域发展心理学
DOI10.3969/j.issn.1007-9572.2016.29.008
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者国家自然科学基金青年科学基金 ; 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目
CSCD记录号CSCD:5824475
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20949
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
通讯作者张兴利
作者单位1.中国科学院心理研究所
2.中国科学院大学
3.丹麦奥尔堡大学学习与哲学系
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
胡飞丽,吴丽芸,张兴利,等. 3~6岁儿童努力控制各成分的快速发展期及性别差异研究[J]. 中国全科医学,2016,19(29):3549-3553.
APA 胡飞丽,吴丽芸,张兴利,&施建农.(2016).3~6岁儿童努力控制各成分的快速发展期及性别差异研究.中国全科医学,19(29),3549-3553.
MLA 胡飞丽,et al."3~6岁儿童努力控制各成分的快速发展期及性别差异研究".中国全科医学 19.29(2016):3549-3553.
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