|其他题名||The evolutionary origins of language and music|
自达尔文始, 人们就开始探究语言和音乐的进化起源. 迄今为止, 这个问题尚未定论. Science在创刊125周年之际, 将其列为未来最具挑战的科学问题之一. 从进化角度说, 自然选择应满足3个标准: 人类特殊性、能力先天性和脑机制的特异性. 本文围绕这3个标准, 对语言和音乐的进化起源进行论述. 在语言方面, 阐述了人类语言的领域特异性, 个体语言发展理论以及语言进化的脑基础, 并指出未来研究应针对语言进化的争论焦点, 采取多种技术, 多学科交叉合作进行研究; 在音乐方面, 发现已有音乐心理学研究结果既不能完全支持音乐适应论,也不能支持非适应论, 未来研究应从音乐能力的不同维度考察音乐进化起源, 并以原始母语为切入点深化音乐与语言的对比研究.
Language, as well as music, is ubiquity across cultures. The evolutionary origins of language and music have been studied since Charles Darwin’s day. According to Darwin, human bodies and brains have been shaped by natural selection for language and music, and musical abilities must be ranked among the most mysterious with which endowed. However, whether language and music are targets of natural selection still remains uncertain. If language and music are unique to human society, exploring the evolutionary origins of language and music would be helpful to shed light on human evolution. From an evolutionary perspective, Patel argues that adaptationist theory of music should meet criteria: humanspecificity, innateness, and domain-specificity. Analogously, the theory of “natural selection for language” should satisfy these three criteria. Based on these, we reviewed the existing psychological literature on language and music to clarify the evolutionary origins of language and music. The uniqueness of speech to humans is indisputable, but the question of how it came to be in humans and no other animal remains a source of contention. The development of simple speech and sign language provides basis for the origins of human speech. There are three distinct properties between human and other animal's communication system. Human speech is a system of symbols, and the communication among people is completed by joint attention and sharing intentions. Human Language bears grammatical structures and there are diverse language systems with distinct grammatical rules all over the world. From the perspectives of language acquisition and development, researchers proposed two theoretical frameworks to interpret the acquisition of human speech: Theory of Generative Grammar and Theory of Cognitive Functional Linguistics. Behavioral genetics study found that a gene Forkhead box P2 is related to a specific language deficits, reflecting that the innateness of human language. Study in cognitive neuroscience of language indicates that different pathways connecting frontal and temporal cortex. The dorsal pathway from the posterior portion of Broca’s area to the superior seems to be of particular importance for high-order language functions, and this pathway probably is crucial for the evolution of human language. In the past decade, advances in musical cognitive and neuroscientific research have leaded to renew interest in the debate of adaptationist and nonadaptationist theories of music. Proponents of the adaptationist theory of music support the biological origins of music proposed by Darwin. In contrast, Proponents of the nonadaptationist theory of music consider music as a technology or “transformative invention” that has important consequences for human culture and biology, or “auditory cheesecake”—a mere pleasure-producing substance. To address the evolutionary origins of music, we reviewed the existing literature from a perspective of both a high and low-level music processing. The current findings revealed that although animals are unable to perceive pitch and rhythm, unlike human, they have comparable processing of vocal emotion with human. Genetic and developmental studies also suggest that there may be individual difference on low-level music processing, but the capacities for music emotion and meaning may be ubiquity in human. Moreover, it is hard to verify there is brain areas or networks specialized for music since whether or not music and language share neural resources is still uncertain. Taken together, further investigation on evolutionary language needs interdisciplinary collaborations and new methodologies (e.g., computational modeling).
|关键词||语言 音乐 进化起源 人类特殊性 先天性 领域特异性|
|蒋存梅,张清芳. 语言与音乐进化的起源[J]. 科学通报,2016,61(7):682-690.|
|MLA||蒋存梅,et al."语言与音乐进化的起源".科学通报 61.7(2016):682-690.|
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