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聋人视空间认知与手语语言关系的系列研究
其他题名A Series of Studies on the Relation between Sign Language and Visual-spatial Cognition
何大芳
学位类型博士
导师方俊明
2001-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词手语 视空间认知 跨模块可塑性 fMRI
摘要

 手语是聋人群体经常使用的系统化和形象化的手势符号,是一种非口语性的言语交流方式。手语由手的形状、手的动作和身体有关某些部位的动作的结合而成。对于先天聋童和听力损失在91 cJll以上的深度聋童来说,手语是唯一的伴随着儿童语言关键期发展起来的自然语言。本研究通过三个部分五个实验系统探讨了聋人手语语言的认知模式与视空间认知模式的关系以及手语语言的大脑功能定位。
实验一和实验二的选取了24名父母双健听的聋手语使用者(Deaf' of Hearing,  DH ),24名听力正常人(Hearing of Hearing, HH)和11名父母双聋的聋手语使用者(本族手语者,Deaf of Deaf, DD)作为被试。实验一采用自编的《视空间认知能力测试系统》软件中的  “视觉表象生成”任务,研究不同组别被试在探测符号位于不同位置(起笔/收笔)时,生成简单字母/复杂字母表象的反应时和错误率。实验二采用同一套软件中的“视觉表象旋转”任务,研究不同组别被试在不同角度((00、900、1350和1800)上,旋转简单图形/复杂图形表象的反应时和错误率。实验一和实验二着重考察手语语言经验和手语习得年龄对视空间认知绩效的影响。
实验三采用词对学习记忆任务,研究对语形特征词对、语音特征词对、无关特征词对的
记忆保持量,考察聋手语者和听力正常人在语词加工的三种策略,即语形策略、语音策略和无关策略运用上的异同。
实验四和实验五运用功能性磁共振脑成像( fMRI)技术,采用外显手语语词流畅性任务和隐藏手语语词流畅性任务,探查手势语在左、右半球大脑皮层的功能定位区。
本研究的主要结果和结论如下;
1.由于使用手语,聋手语者的视空间认知能力有选择性地增强,语言加工模块与空间认知加工模块之间是存一定的共享成分,这为跨模块可塑性理论提供了实证依据。
2.聋手语者具有增强的生成视觉心理表象能力,手语经验对表象生成能力发展有积极性影响。习得手语的年龄对聋手语者生成表象的能力没有明显的影响。
3.使用具有视一空间特征的手语经验能够促使聋手语者具有较好察觉颠倒或反转的镜像的能力,但这种表象旋转能力是特异性的(即非迁移性的)。
4.早期手语经验对非言语的视觉表象能力仅有很小的影响效应(仅仅影响了表象旋转判断的准确度)。
5.聋人组与正常人组语词记忆成绩相当,但使用的策略有所不同。聋手语者表现出明显的语形策略优势。正常人被试则表现出明显的语音策略优势。正常人运用语音进行编码和译码能力明显比聋人强,他们不会自觉地借助语形策略进行记忆。
6.早期手语经验对聋生的语词加工产生影响,拥有早期手语经验的聋生语词编码、译码时,更多采用手语形式。
7.与正常人一样,聋人的视觉性语言优势半球也是在左半球。手语与有声语言的绝大多数功能区是叠合的,语言的半球单侧化现象以及语言大脑功能定位区很少受语言模式特征的影响。
8.在手语语言刺激下,聋人大脑的视觉区与听觉区未见产生明显的补偿或替换现象。    本研究首次采用fMRI技术探查聋手语使用者手语加工的脑机制,研究发现手语与有声语言的绝大多数功能区是叠合的,为跨模块可塑性理论提供了实证研究上的依据。这个发现和对聋手语者语词加工过程的研究发现以及对聋手语者空间认知能力的研究发现一起有力地说明了缺陷和补偿是一对矛盾的统一。对一个具体的残疾人来讲,造成系统性缺陷和系统性补偿的可能性同时存在。心理学和特殊教育学应当致力于研究如何通过良好的教育和训练来避免系统性缺陷和形成系统性补偿。
本项研究倡导“双语教育”,强调重视聋人文化,重视手语是语言地位。主张把聋人手语和主流社会语言作为聋校教学和交际的语言,使聋人能在聋文化和听文化中成为自由生活的双语平衡者。在这一进程中,加强中国手语的规范化研究显得尤为迫切。
结合本研究结果,本文在结尾部分指出未来研究的方向,就建构聋人认知研究领域多元化实验研究框架提出一些建议。

其他摘要

Chinese Sign Language (CSL), the language of deaf communities in China, is produced bymovements of the hands in space and facial expressions rather than the acoustic modulations of the vocal tract. perceived by the visual system rather than the auditory system. It presents a natural opportunity to explore the interplay between linguistic cognition and spatial cognition.
The young deaf child learning sign language is faced with the demands of spatial perception. memory and spatial transformations, as well as processing grammatical structure, all within the same visual event. Children with different auditory and language experience provide a privileged testing ground for investigating the interplay between the development of a spatial language and its spatial cognitive underpinnings.  In Experiment One and Experiment Two, we contrast three groups of children with dif}'erent early language and sensory experiences: deaf children of deaf parents (deaf of deaf, DD) who learned sign as a native language; deaf children of hearing parents (deaf of hearing, DH) who are profoundly deaf and had no signing experience in the first few years of life, but are now exposed to a rich signing Chinese Sign Language (CSL) environment; hearing children of hearing parents (hearing of hearing, HH) who had not signing experience at all. The main purposes of this two experiments was to investigate whether the complex requirements for spatial processing Affect the developmental the development of particular spatial cognitive capacities. i.e. the ability to memorize visual images, to generate them and to rotate them.
    In Experiment Three, the effect of language experience on word memory is studied by analyzing strategies the DH, HH and DD subjects used to memorize characteristic pairs of words.
    In Experiment Four and Experiment Five, we continue to probe the relationship between mental representations of visual space involved in spatial cognition and those specialized for visual-spatial language. We intend to investigate the neural underpinnings of both overt sign language and covert sign language, and fMRI method is adopted. At the same time, the cross-modal plasticity theory was examined.
The main results and conclusions are as follows:
I. Sign language experience selectively improves the spatial cognitive ability development. Sign language modularity shares certain components of processing with visual-spatial cognition     modularity, providing the experimental basis for the cross-modal plasticity theory.
2. The deaf signers have an enhanced ability to generate relatively which the deaf were first exposed to CSL during childhood has image generation. complex images. The age at no significant influence on image generation.
3. The deaf signers have a differential ability to detect mirror image reversals. It may be tied to specific linguistic processing requirements of CSL.
4. The deaf signers of deaf parents are more accurate than those of hearing parents in image     rotation task.
5. The deaf subjects have scored as well as the normal hearing subjects on word memory test, but the strategy they adopt are so different. As to the hearing group, the phoneme strategy is     preferable. While the deaf group prefer the sign strategy to phoneme strategy.
6. The age the deaf firstly exposing to CSL exerts an influence on word memory processing. The congenitally deaf students of deaf parents are more inclined to use sign strategy than phoneme strategy.
7.The left cerebral hemisphere is dominant for processing visible sign language and vocal language as well. Broca's area(Brodmann 44 45), Wernicke's area(Brodmann 22 23 24), supra marginal gyros, perisylvian, and cingulate gyros are involved in both overt and covert sign language processing as in spoken language. These results suggest that the lateralization of language is at least partly independent of language modality.
8. Under the sign language stimuli condition. we find no linguistic specialization in particular areas, i.e. the vision area or he               area in both cerebral hemispheres.
This stu街pioneers to use the fMRI to examine the neural systems involved in overt and covert sign language words processing. We hope to develop a comprehensive neurocognitive model of sign language processing. Such a model is critical to meeting the educational needs of children who are deaf. We may be able to develop games and educational programs that could help deaf children become more efficient processors of language, both sign language and spoken language. We consider the deaf bilingual teaching is supportive during this course. And research on CSL standardization is prerequisite.
Finally, this paper gives some suggestions to Game the experimental Multidimensional research work in the field of the deaf ition research.

学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21266
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
何大芳. 聋人视空间认知与手语语言关系的系列研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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