实验一和实验二的选取了24名父母双健听的聋手语使用者(Deaf' of Hearing, DH ),24名听力正常人(Hearing of Hearing, HH)和11名父母双聋的聋手语使用者(本族手语者，Deaf of Deaf, DD)作为被试。实验一采用自编的《视空间认知能力测试系统》软件中的 “视觉表象生成”任务，研究不同组别被试在探测符号位于不同位置(起笔/收笔)时，生成简单字母/复杂字母表象的反应时和错误率。实验二采用同一套软件中的“视觉表象旋转”任务，研究不同组别被试在不同角度((00、900、1350和1800)上，旋转简单图形/复杂图形表象的反应时和错误率。实验一和实验二着重考察手语语言经验和手语习得年龄对视空间认知绩效的影响。
Chinese Sign Language (CSL), the language of deaf communities in China, is produced bymovements of the hands in space and facial expressions rather than the acoustic modulations of the vocal tract. perceived by the visual system rather than the auditory system. It presents a natural opportunity to explore the interplay between linguistic cognition and spatial cognition.
The young deaf child learning sign language is faced with the demands of spatial perception. memory and spatial transformations, as well as processing grammatical structure, all within the same visual event. Children with different auditory and language experience provide a privileged testing ground for investigating the interplay between the development of a spatial language and its spatial cognitive underpinnings. In Experiment One and Experiment Two, we contrast three groups of children with dif}'erent early language and sensory experiences: deaf children of deaf parents (deaf of deaf, DD) who learned sign as a native language; deaf children of hearing parents (deaf of hearing, DH) who are profoundly deaf and had no signing experience in the first few years of life, but are now exposed to a rich signing Chinese Sign Language (CSL) environment; hearing children of hearing parents (hearing of hearing, HH) who had not signing experience at all. The main purposes of this two experiments was to investigate whether the complex requirements for spatial processing Affect the developmental the development of particular spatial cognitive capacities. i.e. the ability to memorize visual images, to generate them and to rotate them.
In Experiment Three, the effect of language experience on word memory is studied by analyzing strategies the DH, HH and DD subjects used to memorize characteristic pairs of words.
In Experiment Four and Experiment Five, we continue to probe the relationship between mental representations of visual space involved in spatial cognition and those specialized for visual-spatial language. We intend to investigate the neural underpinnings of both overt sign language and covert sign language, and fMRI method is adopted. At the same time, the cross-modal plasticity theory was examined.
The main results and conclusions are as follows:
I. Sign language experience selectively improves the spatial cognitive ability development. Sign language modularity shares certain components of processing with visual-spatial cognition modularity, providing the experimental basis for the cross-modal plasticity theory.
2. The deaf signers have an enhanced ability to generate relatively which the deaf were first exposed to CSL during childhood has image generation. complex images. The age at no significant influence on image generation.
3. The deaf signers have a differential ability to detect mirror image reversals. It may be tied to specific linguistic processing requirements of CSL.
4. The deaf signers of deaf parents are more accurate than those of hearing parents in image rotation task.
5. The deaf subjects have scored as well as the normal hearing subjects on word memory test, but the strategy they adopt are so different. As to the hearing group, the phoneme strategy is preferable. While the deaf group prefer the sign strategy to phoneme strategy.
6. The age the deaf firstly exposing to CSL exerts an influence on word memory processing. The congenitally deaf students of deaf parents are more inclined to use sign strategy than phoneme strategy.
7.The left cerebral hemisphere is dominant for processing visible sign language and vocal language as well. Broca's area(Brodmann 44 45), Wernicke's area(Brodmann 22 23 24), supra marginal gyros, perisylvian, and cingulate gyros are involved in both overt and covert sign language processing as in spoken language. These results suggest that the lateralization of language is at least partly independent of language modality.
8. Under the sign language stimuli condition. we find no linguistic specialization in particular areas, i.e. the vision area or he area in both cerebral hemispheres.
This stu街pioneers to use the fMRI to examine the neural systems involved in overt and covert sign language words processing. We hope to develop a comprehensive neurocognitive model of sign language processing. Such a model is critical to meeting the educational needs of children who are deaf. We may be able to develop games and educational programs that could help deaf children become more efficient processors of language, both sign language and spoken language. We consider the deaf bilingual teaching is supportive during this course. And research on CSL standardization is prerequisite.
Finally, this paper gives some suggestions to Game the experimental Multidimensional research work in the field of the deaf ition research.