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“工作”干预对下岗人员及其配偶影响的研究
其他题名Follow-up Study on the Impact of JOBS Intervention Program on the Unemployed and Their Spouses
刘大维
学位类型博士
导师凌文辁
1999-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词下岗 失业和再就业 干预研究 抑郁 社会支持和社会否定
其他摘要

      “工作”干预计划是由美国密西根大学社会研究所的研究人员开发和设计的一个干预项目。它通过对失业人员的求职技能和应对失业能力的培训,期望达到两个主要的目的:提高失业者的再就业率;提高失业者本人以及其家庭共同应对失业的能力。本研究在需求研究的基础上,采用对实验组和对照组进行跟踪研究的设计,把“工作”干预项目应用到中国下岗人员群体上,以此来评价“工作”干预项目在中国环境中的效果。
    研究的结果表明,实验组,即参加“工作”干预项目的下岗人员,再就业率明显高于对照组的再就业率。但是两组重新就业的人员,在他们的工作质量上,并不存在显著性的差异。具体地来讲,两个相关样本的人员,在对新工作的满意度、月实际收入和与下岗前工作收入相比的高低三个指标上,实验组和对照组之间没有明显的不同。
    此外,对于参加了“工作”干预项目,但是在第二次调查时回答说没有找到工作的下岗人员,干预项目也显示了其积极的影响。这些人的抑郁指标、主观财务困难有明显降低,与配偶间相互的社会支持也有增加。而这些变化在对照组中则观察不到。
      “工作”干预项目不仅对参加培训的下岗者本人有很大的帮助,同时下岗者的配偶也因此受益。这主要表现在配偶的抑郁指标的降低、配偶对下岗者社会否定的减少,以及配偶对下岗人员社会支持的增加。
    研究还探讨了失业引起的主观财务困难、配偶间的关系和双方心理指标的作用模型。从调查数据建构的模型表明,配偶的心理健康,特别是抑郁指标,影响到配偶与求职者的沟通,并以此为中介作用,最终影响求职者的心理健康状况。这对理解失」七讨配偶的影响,以及配偶在失业期间可以起的积极作用给予了进一步的说明。

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    The JOBS model has been developed by researchers from Michigan Prevention Research Center, Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, USA to serve as an intervention program for recruitment into, delivery of, and evaluation of a job-search, skill- enhancement workshop for unemployed job-seekers. The JOBS program has the dual goals of promoting re-employment and enhancing coping capabilities for the unemployed and their families. Based on needs analysis, an experiment vs. a control group follow-up trials study was designed to evaluate the impact of implementing JOBS program on Chinese unemployed.
    The results showed that people who were in the JOBS program had a higher re-employment rate than their counterparts from the control group. While no better quality of job was observed comparing the re-employed from experiment and control group.  When job satisfaction, monthly income and comparative monthly income to last job were used as measures for the quality of job, the re-employed from the JOBS group showed no better sign than those from the control group.
    In addition, the JOBS program had positive impact on the unemployed who did not succeed in finding a job when the data were collected at time2. Out of those not re-employed, the unemployed from the . experiment group demonstrated reduced  depressive episodes, reduced financial strain, increased social support both from and to the spouse, while it's something not observable in the control group.
      The impact of the JOBS program on spouse can also be noticed by seeing the change on spouse depression index, perceived social undermining from job seeker to spouse, and social support to job seeker along the positive direction.
    The interaction among job loss caused financial strain, spouse depression, spouse social support and social undermining to the jobs seeker and the job seeker's depression factors was also  being discussed. A tested model confirmed our view on the mediating and key role that the spouse can play in supporting job seeker together to go through successfully the difficult job loss transition period.

学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21268
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘大维. “工作”干预对下岗人员及其配偶影响的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,1999.
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