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言语交流对汽车驾驶行为的影响
其他题名An Experimental Study on Effects of Verbal Communication on Driving
孙向红
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2001-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词心理负荷 言语交流 驾驶行为
摘要

    随着信息时代的到来,随着人机界面的设计日益智能化,如何将信息交流的功能与高性能汽车结合起来,使现代生活中的驾驶更为高效、安全,是本研究试图探讨的问题。
    本研究从心理负荷的角度探讨驾驶界面中信息交流与驾驶操作之间的相互影响。目前驾驶过程中的信息交流主要利用移动通讯设备进行。由于移动通讯在我国的迅猛发展只有几年的历史,为了真实反映目前驾驶过程中移动通讯设备、电子显示设备的使用情况,首先对105名司机进行了问卷调查,调查结果为后续实验中实验任务与材料的选取提供了依据。然后,在现场环境下,将驾驶难度分为高、中、低三个水平,在主观评价与客观测量手段中寻程,并在句子加工与段落加工两个水平上进一步分解,用句子理解、段落理解、造句、自由回答四种言语交流任务与之一一对应,考查了言语交流与真实驾驶的相互影响。最后,为实验室实验开发了一套基于PC机的模拟驾驶系统,并在该系统平台上,按照道路复杂性与不确定性将驾驶难度进一步细分为直路、弯路、路障直路与路障弯路四个水平,在探讨言语交流与模拟驾驶操作的相互影响的同时,还探讨了人的剩余加工资源随驾驶难度与言语交流任务的变化而变化的规律,从而揭示出红效应出现的条件。
本研究得出以下结论:
1)现场实验与实验室实验的结果均支持NASA-TLX主观评价法是有效而敏感的心理    负荷测评方法。一方面可以反映出驾驶负荷的量随任务难度的增加而增长:另一    方面,主观评价法进一步揭示出完成言语交流与驾驶双任务时,负荷提高的原因    在于时间压力的加大。客观驾驶难度同样是敏感、有效的心理负荷测量方法。其    优点在于可以实时动态地反映任务操作过程中负荷的变化。
2)在本研究中,言语交流对驾驶负荷有显著影响,其中言语理解过程比言语产生过    程对驾驶的影响更大。同时,驾驶的均方根误差受言语交流任务影响较大,表明    驾驶操作在言语交流同时进行时变得很不稳定。反之,驾驶对言语交流有显著影    响:对于言语理解任务而言,反应时可以敏感、准确地反映出随驾驶难度变化的    趋势;对于言语产生任务而言,语速随驾驶难度的增加而减慢,言语重复次数增    多。
3)从客观驾驶难度与视觉选择反应时两个指标上均反映出,在各种言语任务与各种难度的驾驶任务组合中,被试剩余加工资源量的变化。一方面从视觉选择反应的成绩变化上明确地揭示出“红线”(red line)的存在,另一方面从客观驾驶难度指标上也发现被试在负荷达到一定水平后对自身承受的心理负荷进行着主动的调节,以尽量避免红线的出现。

其他摘要

With the development of information technology, instruments based on intelligent-interface-design principles emerged in cars, such as the e-vehicle or telematics system with the function of mobile communication are called. Speech communication is a most important part of information communication during driving. But, it is arguable to question its effect on driving. Would it be safe, although more convenient? Would it be more dangerous as more actions requiring shared attention and more mental workload (MWL)? The three major aims of the study were (1) to develop and standardize reliable diagnostic methods for MWL measurements [i.e., subjective ratings, objective driving difficulty (ODD) measures and achievement in mental performance] in different traffic situations; (2) to investigate the interaction between speech communication and driving behavior, and (3) to detect the variations
in the amount of spare mental resources as the function of driving difficulties and speech processing. The methods of laboratory experiments, field study and survey were used in the study.
    Survey 103 drivers were interviewed with the questions concerning the state-of-the-art of telematics equipment in their cars, and the frequency, purposes and contents of their uses communication means while driving.
   Field study. Based on their reports, experimental tasks were designed to test the effect of different speech processing processes (i.e., verbal comprehension and speech production) and the effect of different levels of language processing (i.e., sentence processing and paragraph processing), namely, (a) sentence comprehension, (b) paragraph comprehension, (c) sentence-making and (d) answering questions by talking within a fixed extension of time. A 2 X 2 X 3 design was used in the field study. That is, the four experimental tasks were conducted under different traffic situations, respectively, easy driving in the highway, medium-difficult driving in auxiliary busy roads, and difficult driving in crowded downtown streets.
   Laboratorv experiments. A driving The subjects simulator with the 3D visual scenes was
used for the laboratory tasks. were asked to drive while conducting the same verbal tasks under situations varied in driving difficulty (i.e., along a straight road or in a road with many turns) and in driving environment (i.e., with or without road-blocks).
    The main results were as follows:
    (1) NASA TLX rating scale was sensitive to driving task. A significant increase was found with the increasing driving difficulty. Time pressure perceived by the subjects under dual-task situation was the main factor that increased MWL. The ODD was also a reliable criterion for detecting MWL in driving, as it could reflect the dynamic variation of MWL in real situation.
    (2) There was a significant effect of verbal communication on driving. Comparing the two kinds of speech processes, driving had more influence on verbal comprehension than it did on speech production. In verbal comprehension, the response time was significantly delayed. In speech production process, significant differences were found in the amount of words produced, time and speed of speech, and lexical fluency between the single-task and the dual-task conditions. With the increasing of driving difficulty, the speed of speech slowed down, while repetitions of words increased.
    (3) . The spare mental resources were changed significantly as a function of difficulty both in driving and in verbal communication. Under the highest dual-task dii}culty condition, "red line" effect was detected in visual selection task, and subjects slowed down their driving speed to decrease perceived MWL, which showed the limit of human's mental resources.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21270
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
孙向红. 言语交流对汽车驾驶行为的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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