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功能短句的语义成分对两可自然物体分类的影响
其他题名The semantic component of the short functional depiction affects categorization of the ambiguous naturally formed object
王哲1; 严璘璘1; 孙宇浩1; 傅小兰2,3
第一作者王哲
2017
发表期刊科学通报
通讯作者邮箱sunyuhao@zstu.edu.cn ; fuxl@psych.ac.cn
ISSN0023-074X
文章类型期刊论文
卷号62期号:5页码:394-399
产权排序2
摘要

已有研究发现,用自然语言短句描述物体功能会影响人们对两可物体的分类.本研究请96名大学生阅读多个经过设计、筛选的两可物体,用自然语言呈现其"正常功能"和"异常功能",以此恒定并且排除掉自然语言中必然出现的句法成分,保留语义成分,以此考察语义成分对物体命名的特异效应.实验结果表明,人们在正常功能条件下将两可物体分类为人造物的比率显著高于在异常功能条件下将两可物体分类为人造物的比率,而且物体功能的合理程度评分越高,被分类为人造物的可能性就越大.研究提示,人们对物体功能的理解在人造物分类过程中起关键作用,研究结果支持基于用途的人造物分类模型.

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Artifacts(e.g., chair, desk, books) are closely related with peoples' daily life. Evidences have been accumulated from behavior experiment, brain damage patient, and neural functional imaging to show that the cognitive neural processing mechanisms are different for artifacts and natural kinds. The intention-based model assumes that people categorize an objects' by reasoning the creator's intent. Evidence for this model are about "intended function" effect in categorization, naming, and reasoning studies. However, the utility-based model assumes that using-goal is determining how people categorize an object. The interaction between people and objects make object's properties related the using-goal so that the semantic organization of an artifact concept is coherent. This model can explain evidence from study on both intended function and non-intended function. From a third-party perspective, the commonalty of these two models is that they are both purpose-based and the key difference between them is that the creator's versus the user's purpose influences artifact concept's categorization and reasoning. Previous studies used a natural language depiction-based free naming task but seldom separate syntactic component from the semantic component in these depictions. In this study, we recruited 96 participants and manipulated the plausibility of 6 objects' function by creating plausible and implausible versions of function depiction to explore how the plausibility of an object's function affects participants' categorization judgment. The study had two key findings: The plausibility of an object's function affects participants' naming, rating, and reasoning of an artifact. Participants categorize ambiguous depictions of objects as artifacts when objects' function is plausible and categorize them as natural kinds when their function is implausible. The correlation analysis showed that the more plausible an object's function is the higher possibility that participants categorize it as an artifact. In summary, presenting the semantic component of an object's function make ambiguous object categorized more as artifacts. Wang et al. found the role effect which showed that positive role word "you" can illuminate object history effect on categorization judgment. Namely, the role word can affect both the amount of function listed and the object categorization. These findings suggest that role word, object function, and categorization judgment are in a linear mediation relation: role word activate object function, and object function activation categorization judgment. In this current study, we directly probe and proved that the semantic component of object function has effect on artifact concept processing. If with the assumption that both the object man-made formation history and the second person role word can activate object function, then the purpose-based theory can explain both the formation effect and the role effect indicating that the two effects have a common mediating step: first to activate object's function, then have effect on next cognitive output. Therefore, this point developed the purpose-based model.

关键词人造物 分类 功能 意图
学科领域认知心理学
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者教育部人文社会科学研究项目(15YJC190022) ; 浙江省自然科学基金(LQ16C090003,LY16C090005,LY13C090005) ; 国家自然科学基金(31100737,31371032,61375009)资助
CSCD记录号CSCD:5913503
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21370
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
通讯作者孙宇浩; 傅小兰
作者单位1.浙江理工大学心理学系
2.中国科学院心理研究所
3.中国科学院大学
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王哲,严璘璘,孙宇浩,等. 功能短句的语义成分对两可自然物体分类的影响[J]. 科学通报,2017,62(5):394-399.
APA 王哲,严璘璘,孙宇浩,&傅小兰.(2017).功能短句的语义成分对两可自然物体分类的影响.科学通报,62(5),394-399.
MLA 王哲,et al."功能短句的语义成分对两可自然物体分类的影响".科学通报 62.5(2017):394-399.
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